All the instructions to completing the portfolio assignment is on the attached file. Thank you!!!
Tutorial letter 103/0/2022
Department of Psychology
This tutorial letter contains information on Assessment 03: Portfolio assignment.
1 SECTION 1: PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN REAL-LIFE CONTEXTS (18 marks) 4
2 SECTION 2: CASE STUDY (8 marks) 5
2.1 Case study 1: Developmental context 6
2.2 Case study 2: Educational context 7
2.3 Structure and content of the essay assignment 10
3 SECTION 3: QUESTIONS ON THEORETICAL AND APPLIED KNOWLEDGE (66 marks) 10
4 SECTION 4: REFERENCING AND PLAGIARISM (8 marks) 11
4.1 Reference list (6 marks) 11
4.2 Plagiarism declaration (2 marks) 12
Assessment 03, the portfolio assignment, is the examination. You do not sit for an examination in this module. Your portfolio is your examination. You may only submit Assessment 3, if you have submitted both Assessment 1 and Assessment 2. You submit the portfolio on the myModules site under Assessment 3.
Very important: The portfolio due date is an examination date and you MUST submit the portfolio on or before the final due date. Note that there will be no supplementary/aegrotat opportunity.
Sections of the portfolio assignment:
The portfolio consists of four sections and you should complete and submit all four sections.
Section Marks Max length
Section 1: Real-life contexts (select one of three contexts) 18 marks 2 pages
Section 2: Case study (select one of two options) 8 marks 10 pages
Section 3: Questions on theoretical and applied knowledge 66 marks 5 pages
Section 4: Referencing and plagiarism 8 marks 2 pages
Technical production of the portfolio assignment
Front page: Title, student name, student number, module code
Contents: List of contents
Length: The maximum length is specified for each section
Font type: Times New Roman
Font size: 12
Line spacing: 1.5
Margins: 2 cm
File format: (.pdf)
Summary of PDF document to be submitted
If you completed case study 1 If you completed case study 2
Title page Title page
List of contents List of contents
Section 1 Section 1
Case study 1 Section 2
Case study 2
Q5a Section 3
Plagiarism declaration Section 4
We cannot mark draft assignments. You will be prompted to submit the final version of the portfolio assignment. The system will confirm that you are satisfied that this is your final document. If you have selected ‘submit assignment’ you can no longer replace the assignment (even if the due date has not been reached). It is the student’s responsibility to check the following before selecting the ‘submit assignment’ option.
1) It is Assignment 03 for PYC4807.
2) It is your final version.
3) The pdf file can open, it is not read only and it is not corrupt.
1 SECTION 1: PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN REAL-LIFE CONTEXTS (18 marks)
You need to select ONE of the three contexts (developmental or educational or organisational) in your everyday life in which psychological testing is done. You will describe the testing done in this context by answering the questions below. Please DO NOT just provide a theoretical discussion from the textbook - you need to share your observations, experiences, and thoughts based on actual exposure to the context, be it in person, through conversation with specialists in the context, etcetera. The maximum length is 2 pages.
Three applied contexts of testing are covered in this module, namely developmental assessment of infants, pre-school and primary school children, assessment in an educational context for career counselling, and assessment in organisational contexts. We want you to reflect on how psychological testing is done in these contexts in your everyday life. Below are some ideas:
Developmental Educational Organisational
You, a friend, or a family member may have a child in primary school. What happens in this context if a child has learning difficulties? Perhaps the school makes use of the services of an educational psychologist. If the If you or someone you know has a child who has to make subject choices in Grade 9, the school may inform parents of the availability of psychologists who will provide career counselling that involves psychological Were you or someone you know tested when they applied for a job? If so, what was this experience like? Perhaps you work in a context where testing is done for high risk jobs.
school and/or the parents do not have the resources to do so, there might be efforts to assist children who struggle with additional classes. This highlights the issue of the availability of assessment services to South African communities. assessment. You may have contacted the student counselling services at Unisa or you may be in an organisation that helps employees with assessment for career counselling.
There are various ways to obtain information about psychological assessment in these contexts. You can read on the topic (news articles, magazines, and articles in subject journals), talk to your friends and family, and to someone who is involved in the psychological assessment process. Please note that your answers should focus on psychological assessment per se and should reflect a thorough understanding of the syllabus covered in this module.
Please note that information should be gained in an informal manner and no formal research needs to be undertaken. You nevertheless need to adhere to ethical practices, such as informing people that you will be reporting information in your assignment, requesting consent to do so, and ensuring confidentiality – no names of organisations, institutions, or individuals should be used in your assignment. COVID-19 protocols such as the wearing of masks, hand hygiene, cough etiquette, and social distancing should be strictly adhered to.
Answer the following questions (2 marks each):
1) Which context did you select (developmental, educational, or organisational) and why did you select this context? Provide a detailed explanation of how you gathered the information for answering the questions in this section.
2) Describe the context with reference to the procedures related to the psychological assessment process (e.g., typical activities that form part of the assessment strategy and process, the individuals involved, etcetera).
3) What are the reasons for testing in this context? Refer to the context in general, but also to the specific environment that you explored. Refer to Chapter 15 in the textbook if you are unsure of what is required here.
4) Who is tested in this context? For example, groups or individuals, infants and pre-school children, primary school or secondary school children, young people, and/or adults.
5) How and where are the test-materials and the results stored? How are security and confidentiality ensured?
6) Who administers the tests and interprets the results? Are they qualified to administer and interpret psychological tests? Be specific.
7) How are the test results communicated (written reports, verbal discussions, or both)? To whom are the results communicated? Who has access to the reports?
8) Provide examples of psychological tests that are typically administered in this context. Mention the different types of tests and give specific examples. Refer to Theme 2 in Tutorial letter 102 to see how tests are classified.
9) Are there contextual and ethical issues that need to be considered? For example, are there language issues, are vulnerable populations tested, how is confidentiality ensured, and how are the results secured? Please refer specifically to the environment that you explored.
2 SECTION 2: CASE STUDY (8 marks)
Complete case study 1 OR case study 2. You need to do only ONE of the case studies. The maximum length is 10 pages. You need to complete the essay in detail to be able to answer the questions in Section 3.
2.1 Case study 1: Developmental context
Becky is five years and six months old. Becky is an adopted Xhosa-speaking child with a history of neglect and lack of stimulation in her early years (prior to the adoption). Her adoptive parents live in a rural area. Quite early on, her adoptive parents had concerns about her speech and language. Her adoptive mother noticed that Becky’s speech did not seem as advanced as those of her neighbours child who was of a similar age. Becky was referred to a Speech and Language Therapy Service by a pediatrician at the clinic. This assessment showed that Becky had a delay of 12 months in her speech and language skills. Her adoptive mother said that Becky “has a limited vocabulary and always seems very shy and reluctant to communicate with anyone. This worries us, especially as Becky herself is having more tantrums. We are worried how she would ever cope at school if she cannot communicate”.
Her adoptive parents were advised by the pediatrician to also have Becky assessed by an educational psychologist in terms of her school-readiness. They work full-time and asked the grandmother, who is living with the parents, to take Becky to her appointment with the counselling psychologist. An arrangement was made that the grandmother would sign the informed consent form on behalf of the adoptive parents and that the psychologist would e-mail the report to the adoptive parents. The counselling psychologist administered the Junior South African Individual Scales (JSAIS). Only the 12 core tests of the global IQ scale (GIQ 12 scale) were administered.
Write a 10-page essay on the assessment process that should be followed. Where appropriate, refer to the principles of early childhood assessment in your answer (Meisels & Atkins-Burnett, 1999). Follow the guidelines for the outline and content of this essay as given below. Refer to Section 2.3 in this tutorial letter for the requirements for the structure and content of an essay in general.
Provide a summary of what you will discuss in your essay.
2. Reason/rationale for testing in a developmental context
Refer to your study material and discuss the reasons for testing in a developmental context.
3. Context of the assessment
Discuss Becky’s characteristics, her caregiving, and her socio-economic and socio-cultural circumstances. What is the problem or reason for the referral?
4. Compiling a test battery
• A diagnostic measure is more appropriate than a screening measure in this case. Explain why?
• The counselling psychologist selected a measure suitable for pre-school children. Briefly explain how this differs from infant measures.
• The counselling psychologist administered the Junior South African Individual Scales (JSAIS). Only the 12 core tests of the global IQ scale (GIQ 12 scale) were administered. Note that there is not always an ‘ideal test’ available. One selects the most appropriate measure and acknowledges any shortcomings that should be considered. You need to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the JSAIS in this case. Please note that you will have
to search for additional sources to be able to comprehensively address the following issues. As a Unisa student you have access to subject journals, dissertations, theses, etcetera on the library site (“find e-resources”).
- Consider the aim and purpose of the JSAIS and the constructs it measures (focus on the GIQ 12 scale).
- Discuss the norm group/s of the JSAIS (i.e., for what group/s are norms available?). Now compare Becky’s characteristics to this norm group and decide if the norm group is appropriate in terms of age, language, culture, etcetera.
- Describe the psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of the JSAIS and indicate if there is any research available on the use of the test in a multicultural context. Refer specifically to the predictive validity of developmental measures (see Box 17.1) and how it applies here.
5. Administration, interpretation of results, and feedback
• Describe at least four good practices that apply specifically to the administration of tests to children in general and to Becky in particular.
• Discuss ethical considerations that are important especially when testing children. In the present scenario, there were good assessment practices and some potentially unethical assessment practices. Identify and briefly discuss these practices.
• When interpreting the results to assess a child’s level of development, information from various sources should be considered. Briefly discuss all the persons who should be involved in the assessment process. Mention the socio-economic and socio-cultural factors that could have affected Becky’s results on the test.
End the discussion with a brief conclusion on the essay you have written.
2.2 Case study 2: Educational context
John is an 18-year-old Zulu-speaking student who attended school in rural KwaZulu-Natal. He enrolled for a diploma in administration and would eventually like to use his knowledge and skills in a job that entails regular interaction with others. Some of the tasks typically included in an administrative job are: managing correspondence, dealing with personnel issues, being informed about the budget, answering client queries, arranging and taking minutes at meetings, and organising functions. John would like to confirm that the career he has in mind is suitable and he requested career counselling from an educational psychologist.
Write a 10-page essay on the assessment process that should be followed. Refer to literature where relevant (e.g. the article by Van Eeden, De Beer, & Coetzee, 2001). Follow the guidelines for the outline and content of this essay as given below. Refer to Section 2.3 in this tutorial letter for the requirements for the structure and content of an essay in general.
Provide a brief summary of what you will discuss in your essay.
2. Reason/rationale for testing in an education context
Describe the person-environment fit approach to career counselling and explain the importance of the domains that are assessed.
3. Context and the assessment
Describe the context of testing with reference to John’s background and the reason for doing the assessment.
4. Compiling a test battery
The educational psychologist has compiled the following test battery: a measure of general cognitive ability (the Learning Potential Computerised Adaptive Test or LPCAT), an assessment of aptitudes (the Differential Aptitude Tests or DAT), an interest questionnaire (the Self-directed Search or SDS) and a structured personality questionnaire (the Occupational Personality Questionnaire or OPQ).
• Critically discuss the appropriateness of each of these measures (i.e., the LPCAT, the DAT, the SDS, and the OPQ) in this context. Please note that you will have to search for additional sources to be able to comprehensively address the following issues. As a Unisa student, you have access to subject journals, dissertations, theses, etcetera on the library site.
- State the aim of the measure and indicate which constructs it measures. Do not, for example, just say aptitude/s but indicate which aptitude/s.
- Discuss the norm group of the measure (i.e., for what group are norm tables available?). Now compare John’s characteristics to this norm group and decide if the norm group is appropriate in terms of age, language, culture, etcetera.
- Describe the psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of the test and indicate any research available on the use of the test in a multicultural context such as South Africa.
• Briefly indicate why a measure of learning potential (using dynamic assessment) is more suitable than, for example, a group test of intelligence (based on the psychometric approach) in this instance. (Hint: Refer to Table 2.1 in Tutorial letter 102 and the subsection on Dynamic assessment in Chapter 10.)
5. Administration, ethical considerations, and interpretation of results
• Describe at least four practices that apply to the individual administration of tests.
• Discuss the ethical considerations that apply in this context.
• On the next page, John’s results on the four measures are given. Interpret ONLY the relevant findings on each test. Relate the results to the level of studies (diploma), the career field, and his preferred work environment. Please note that we do not expect a detailed interpretation of the test results. We understand that you do not yet have the expertise to make such an interpretation. Limit the length of this sub-section.
• Refer to the potential influence of language and socio-cultural factors on these results.
End the discussion with a brief conclusion on the essay you have written.
Results of the assessment measures
Learning potential (LPCAT) (stanines with an average of 5 and a maximum of 9)
Total score: 6
Hint: The educational description and NQF level associated with these scores are a tertiary diploma and an NQF level 6
Competency assessment (DAT) (stanines with an average of 5 and a maximum of 9)
Verbal aptitude: Vocabulary 4
Verbal reasoning 4
Reading Comprehension 5
Numerical aptitude: Calculations 4
Visual-spatial reasoning: Non-verbal reasoning: Figures 4
Spatial visualisation 3-D 3
Clerical aptitude: Comparison 8
Memory: Memory 5
Mechanical aptitude: Mechanical Insight 3
Hint: Comment on his clerical aptitude, his verbal aptitude, and his numerical aptitude.
Scores on the career fields (SDS) (the three highest scores determine main career interests)
Realistic (practical) 20
Investigative (scientific) 5
Enterprising (business) 10
Conventional (clerical) 45
Personality profile (OPQ)
Competency 1 2 3 4 5
Leading and Deciding
1.1 Deciding and Initiating Action 1.2 Leading and Supervising
Supporting and Cooperating
2.1 Working with People
2.2 Adhering to Principles and Values
Interacting and Presenting
3.1 Relating and Networking
3.2 Persuading and Influencing
3.3 Presenting and Communicating Information
Analysing and Interpreting
4.1 Writing and Reporting
4.2 Applying Expertise and Technology
Creating and Conceptualising
5.1 Learning and Researching
5.2 Creating and Innovating
5.3 Formulating Strategies and Concepts
Organising and Executing
6.1 Planning and Organising
6.2 Delivering Results and Meeting Customer Expectations
6.3 Following Instructions and Procedures
Adapting and Coping
7.1 Adapting and Responding to Change
7.2 Coping with Pressures and Setbacks
Enterprising and Performing
8.1 Achieving Personal Work Goals and Objectives
8.2 Entrepreneurial and Commercial Thinking
Hint: Focus on the traits with above average and high scores (4 and 5) but check that the average scores in general (3) also support the proposed field of study.
2.3 Structure and content of the essay assignment
You are expected to develop sound judgement as to the relevance or irrelevance of information and the appropriate level of abstraction at which the information is to be presented. In other words, you must decide whether, within the framework of a given task, a certain sub-section should be highly detailed or of a more general nature.
• Arrange your material systematically and logically by using the headings given in the assignment brief and your own sub-headings (where appropriate).
• Start your discussion with an introduction - putting the reader “in the picture”. Present your information in a logical way so that the direction you are going in is clear to the reader. Everything you discuss should be relevant to the assessment process followed in your chosen context. End the discussion with a conclusion. There should be a direct relationship between your introduction and the conclusion.
• Be concise and relevant. Focus on information that is directly relevant to the topic.
• You should demonstrate the ability to select appropriate information and indicate that you understand the subject by using your own words.
• You may use any appropriate resource material, but the minimum requirement is the prescribed book and the article(s) prescribed for the relevant theme.
• See Section 4 below on references.
• Please proofread your work for typing errors before submitting your portfolio.
3 SECTION 3: QUESTIONS ON THEORETICAL AND APPLIED KNOWLEDGE (66 marks)
Use the information in the essay on the case study (Section 2) that you completed to answer the following questions. If you chose case study 1, you must answer questions 1 and 2 on the JSAIS, and if you chose case study 2 you must answer questions 1 and 2 on the LPCAT. Question 5a also only applies to case study 1, and question 5b only applies to case study 2. Your answers should be between 300 and 500 words. The maximum length is one page per question.
Question 1 (13 marks)
a) Define reliability and identify and briefly describe the five types of reliability. (6)
b) Critically discuss the reliability of the JSAIS (if you chose case study 1) OR the LPCAT (if you chose case study 2). Briefly describe the type/s of reliability that was/were identified for the JSAIS OR LPCAT, explain the findings, and indicate if the reliability was acceptable. (7)
Question 2 (13 marks)
a) Identify and briefly describe the three main types of validity. (6)
b) Critically discuss the validity of the JSAIS (if you chose case study 1) OR the LPCAT (if you chose case study 2). Briefly describe the type/s of validity that was/were identified for the JSAIS OR LPCAT, explain the findings, and indicate if the validity was acceptable. (7)
Question 3 (15 marks)
As is the case with Becky in case study 1 and John in case study 2, South Africa is a multilingual country, and individuals are often tested in English even though this is their second or third language.
a) List the factors that need to be taken into account when compiling a test battery. (5)
b) What factors related to the assessment process need to be taken into account to make the assessment fair and ethical from a language perspective? (10)
Question 4 (10 marks)
Your friend is going for a psychological assessment as part of a job application. He is contacted by the psychometrist but is unsure of what a psychometrist does because he has only heard about a psychologist. He asks you to clarify this. Briefly describe the similarities and differences between a psychologist and a psychometrist (independent practice) with reference to the extent to which they may use psychological tests. (10)
Question 5a (15 marks) ONLY FOR STUDENTS WHO COMPLETED CASE STUDY 1
Discuss some of the considerations that the counselling psychologist had to take note of during the process of selecting a test to assess Becky’s development. Your answer should consider Becky’s history, age, language ability, and emotional development, together with any other contextual factors you deem relevant. (15)
Question 5b (15 marks) ONLY FOR STUDENTS WHO COMPLETED CASE STUDY 2
The educational psychologist employed the person-environment fit approach as a framework for John’s career counselling assessment.
a) List and briefly describe the domains which are assessed according to this approach and provide an example of a psychometric measure of each domain. (5)
b) Apply the person-environment fit approach to the scenario by considering the typical tasks required in an administrative job and discussing the related requirements in terms of the domains measured by the approach. (10)
4 SECTION 4: REFERENCING AND PLAGIARISM (8 marks)
In this section, you will submit the reference list for the references that you used in Sections 1, 2 and 3. Use the department’s guidelines in Tutorial Letter PSYHONM/301 (see Additional resources). You will also include the signed and dated plagiarism declaration. The maximum length is 2 pages.
Each student must write and submit his/her own individual assignment. In other words, you must submit your own ideas in your own words, sometimes interspersing relevant short quotations using quotation marks. You should use references throughout. Note that even if you provide a reference, you need to use your own words (unless you use a direct quotation with quotation marks and provide the relevant page number). An exception is the use of theoretical information (definitions, etc.) from the prescribed book where overlap with the original material is to be expected. Nevertheless, reference the prescribed book.
4.1 Reference list (6 marks)
Include the references that you used in Sections 1, 2 and 3 here:
• You may use any appropriate resource material, but the minimum requirement is the prescribed book, the tutorial letters and the article(s) prescribed for the relevant theme.
• Present your work according to the APA 7th edition guidelines provided as an additional resource.
• The in-text references and the reference list should correspond. Do not include references that you did not personally consult (except in the case of secondary references where you will cite the primary source). You should preferably provide the URL for your references.
4.2 Plagiarism declaration (2 marks)
Your assignment must be your own work. If you take the words, ideas, and thoughts of others and pass them off as your own, you are committing an act of plagiarism. Plagiarism is a form of theft that involves several dishonest academic activities. Plagiarism is not tolerated. Although you DO NOT have to submit your portfolio to Turnitin, we may submit portfolios randomly and when we suspect plagiarism. You will be penalised for work that contains plagiarised material.
Include the plagiarism declaration in your assignment:
HONESTY DECLARATION FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
Module Code: PYC4807 Assessment Date 26 September 2022
1. I know that plagiarism means taking and using the ideas, writings, works or inventions of another as if they were one’s own. I know that plagiarism not only includes verbatim copying, but also the extensive use of another person’s ideas without proper acknowledgement (which includes the proper use of quotation marks) or any attempt to cheat the plagiarism checking system. I know that plagiarism covers the use of material found in textual sources and from the Internet.
2. I acknowledge and understand that plagiarism is wrong.
3. I understand that my assignment/exam answers must be accurately referenced.
4. This assignment/exam file/portfolio is my own work. I acknowledge that copying someone else’s work, or part of it, is wrong, and that submitting identical work to others constitutes a form of plagiarism.
5. I have not allowed, nor will I in the future allow, anyone to copy my work with the intention of passing it off as their own work.
6. I understand that I can be awarded 0% if I have plagiarized.
7. I understand that my assignment/exam file/portfolio may be submitted automatically to Turnitin.
8. I confirm that I have read and understood the following UNISA policies:
8.1 Policy for Copyright and Plagiarism
8.2 Policy on Academic Integrity
8.3 Student Disciplinary Code
Name……………………………………………… Student No: ..............................
Signed ……………………………………………. Date …………………………….
Please feel free to contact the teaching team regarding your studies in this module.
Your PYC4807 lecturers