Recent Question/Assignment

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1. Define: Hyperopia:
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2. Define: Myopia
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3. Define: Astigmatism:
4. Define: Presbyopia:
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1. What eye colour is produced by the most amount of pigment in the Iris
2. Too much near work, thereby forcing the crystalline lens of the eye to over accommodate without providing it with sufficient rest, can result in what?
3. An inherited disease which gradually devastates the rods of the Retina, thereby reducing night vision and ultimately resulting in “Tunnel” vision is known as what
4. As an increasing amount of light enters the eye, the pupil does what
5. What ocular tissue provides protection for the eye and serves as an attachment for the extraoccular muscles which move the eye
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1. Name the three fluid chambers of the eye and where they are situated
2. Provide a definition of accommodation
3. Name the six extraoccular muscles
4. State the function of the Lacrimal glands.
5. Name the vessels that supply blood to the Cornea.
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Explain the condition illustrated below and state how this could be corrected
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Explain the condition illustrated below and state how this could be corrected
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Cataract
Glaucoma
Macular Degeneration
Amblyopia
This condition, also known as -lazy eye,- occurs when one eye is weaker than the other. Both eyes cannot blend an image.
Lazy eye usually starts at childhood, and can be corrected if detected and treated by the age of five.
By patching the strong eye, the weaker eye is forced to properly network to the brain, allowing it to become stronger.
Trachoma
Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)
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List some of the possible general causes of hearing loss:-
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List some of the causes of perforated eardrum:-
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Red blood cells with a high concentration of oxygen
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1. What is the main function of the respiratory system?
2. Name the microscopic hairs lining the respiratory tract.
3. How many lobes does the right lung contain?
4. How many lobes does the left lung contain?
5. Which main blood vessels carry blood to the lungs from the heart?
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6. Which main blood vessels carry blood from the lungs to the heart?
7. What is the function of the pleura ?
8. Which structure closes off the trachea during swallowing?
9. What is the function of the goblet cells?
10. How thick is the average alveolar wall?
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Describe, in a paragraph, the process of inspiration and expiration, the muscles used and the nerves which initiate and prohibitpulmonary ventilation.
List the main blood vesselsinvolved in the movement of deoxygenated blood to the lungs, and the movement of oxygenated bloodback to the heart.
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What is the term for the active phase of respiration?
What is the passive phase termed?
Which muscles are used when inspiration is FORCED?
What is this a sign of?
Does the diaphragm move up or down during inspiration?
What is the main function of the respiratory system
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What is meant by the term hypercarbia?
If carbon dioxide levels rise, what affect does this have on respiration?
What is meant by the term hypoxemia?
Where is the respiratory centre situated
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2) The brain has no venous system, how does the blood return to the Superior Vena Cava?
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Frontal lobe
Parental lobe
Occipital lobe
Temporal lobe
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Primary motor area
Premotor area
Frontal association area
Broca’s area
Somatic sensory area
Gustatory area
Corpus callosum
Basal nuclei
Hypothalamus
Medulla oblongata
Reticular activating system
Cerebellum
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Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
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10) What is meant by the blood brain barrier? What can cross the blood brain barrier? What can not cross the barrier?
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1) Midbrain
2) Pons Varoll
3) Medulla Oblongata
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13) What is the spinal cord and its function?
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Afferent / efferent arteriole
Glomerulus
Glomerular capsule (Bowman’s)
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Proximal convoluted tubule
Nephron loop (loop of Henle)
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Collecting duct
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
Distal convoluted tubule
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What is the functional unit of the Kidney?
The Kidney is internally divided into three layers. The cortex, …………… and pelvis.
The three processes by which urine is produced are filtration, reabsorption and …..........…?
In which region of the nephron does filtration occur?
In which region of the nephron does the majority of reabsorption occur?
The kidneys main function is the production of urine. Name two other functions of the kidney?
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What is the primary effect of ADH?
Describe the two main actions of angiotensin II.
Describe the effect of atrial natriuretic hormone.
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Pre-Renal Failure
Renal Failure
Post-Renal Failure
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Describe the signs and symptoms of Acute Renal Failure
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Hypovolemia (causes, symptoms)
Hypervolemia (causes, symptoms)
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1. Insulin is a lipid hormone secreted by the stomach
2. Growth hormone is a lipid hormone
3. Insulin receptors are located inside the mitochondria of cells
4. Hyper-secretion of growth hormone may lead to dwarfism
5. Growth hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland
6. Insulin receptors are located on cell membranes
7. Both growth hormone and insulin are protein hormones and thus can be produced “artificially” by means of biotechnology.
8.Insulin causes cells to “up-take” glucose
9. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex
10. When a person intakes a large quantity of sugar, the pancreas will respond by secreting insulin
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State which hormones on the previous table are secreted by the Anterior Pituitary
And which are secreted by the posterior pituitary
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What is the ‘master gland’
Which gland secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
Hormones from this gland help regulate metabolism of Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
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Which gland helps to regulate circadian rhythms
Which gland secretes cortisol and aldosterone
This hormone is called a mineralcorticoid because it helps regulate the concentration of mineral electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium ions.
This hormone is responsible for the development and maintenance of most of the female secondary sex characteristics.
Controls secretion of certain hormones from the adrenal cortex.Controls the release of cortisol
Which hormone is released in response to sympathetic nervous stimulation. It causes, among other things, an increase in heart rate, dilation of breathing tubes etc.
Which hormone is highly involved in glucose metabolism
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Is the pancreas an endocrine gland or an exocrine gland. Explain your answer
Choose an example of negative feedback, and explain in your own words how negative feedback works. You may draw a diagram to explain your answer
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List some of the different types of cancer of the thyroid gland:-
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The chambers are separated by valves. Name the valves and their function:
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What are the Chordae Tendineae and what is their function?
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Describe the process by which blood returning from the body passes through the heart to the lungs:
The blood entering the right side of the heart is Deoxygenated. Explain what happens to the blood as it enters the lungs
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Describe the process by which blood from the lungs passes through the heart into the circulation
Explain what happens to the blood as it circulates around the body
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Why is it important that this layer is smooth?
What does it consist of , and what is its function?
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The outer layer of the heart is termed the pericardium and is composed of two layers. What are these layers called and what are they composed of ?
From where do the coronary arteries originate?
What is the function of the coronary arteries ?
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Explain what happens to the coronary arteries in coronary heart disease
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The cardiac cycle is controlled by specialized conducting tissue in the heart. In the box below explain how this system works in controlling the rhythmical contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle.
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1. A gene is a length of DNA
2. Identical Twins have the same genes
3. Tongue rolling is genetic you can either do it or you can’t.
4. There are 23 Chromosomes in a gene
5. The severity of genetic diseases decreases as they are passed through generations
6. There are 46 chromosomes in all normal cells except gametes (sex cells) which have 23 chromosomes
7. Everyone has a “DNA FINGERPRINT” which can be used to identify people i.e. crime.
8. DNA can be affected by exposure to radiation
9. There are 46 genes in every living cell
10. If two recessive genes for an illness are inherited, you are likely to get the illness.
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1. Who was the first physician to put forth an explanation for the idea of hereditary traits?
2. What are the names given to Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance?
3. What is a gamete?
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4. The male carries the traits for Blue and Brown eyes and the female carries the trait for Green eyes only what possible traits might the children of these parents carry?
5. What is a haploid cell?
6. What is a zygote ?
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7. What is an allele?
8. What do we mean by the term homologous?
9. What do we mean by the term heterozygous?
10. What do we mean by the term homozygous?
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11. What is meant by the term “phenotype”?
12. Explain the process of mitosis.
13. Explain the process of meiosis
14. What is a telomere?
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15. What would happen to a chromosome with no telomeres?
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Briefly outline the structure and function of compact bone
Briefly outline the structure and function of cancellous bone
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Give a brief description of each type of bone and where they may be found
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Describe the function of each of the different types of bone cells
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Provide a very brief description of each type of joint
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Give examples of where you might find these joints
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1. What are the functions of bones?
2. What are bones composed of?
3. What do osteoblasts and osteoclasts do?
4. What are the three categories of joints
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Explain how these muscles differ from each other
Where in the body would you find examples of each?
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A muscle that primarily produces a movement is called an agonist; a muscle that opposes the movement is called an antagonist.
Explain how these muscles work in relation to movement of the knee joint during walking.
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We know that red blood cells are responsible for
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1. In your own words describe why haemoglobin is important.
2. What would happen if somebody had an iron deficiency
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3. What is iron deficiency called?
4. What are the normal haemoglobin levels for a) a male and b) a female?
5. What method does a nurse use to consider a patients’s level of oxygen saturation? How does this work?
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Fill in the missing words - Type your answers in the box provided at the bottom of this page. Please add these in the format A-1 B-2 C-3 and so on.
...A... include neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils.
Agranulocytes include ...B... and ...C....
The most common white blood cell is the ...D....
...E... may be caused by acute infection.
...F... defend against parasitic infestations.