Assignment 2: Short answer questions - 4 questions – 10 marks each – Total: 40 marks
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Due Date: 15th November (11:59 pm Australian Eastern Daylight Time (AEDT))
Marks: 40 marks (or 40% of the overall result for this course)
Word limit: All submissions should not exceed the given word limits.
Assignment won’t be marked after the given word limit for question/part / overall assignment has reached. For example: If the given word limit for an assessment/ question is 300 words, anything after 300 words + extra 10% will NOT be marked. So, be very careful when preparing your assessment. For any confusion regarding word limits, contact your course co-ordinator.
Late Submission of Assignment: As per University of Newcastle policies, the marks for an assessment item submitted after the designated time on the due date, without an approved extension of time, will be reduced by 10% of the possible maximum mark for that assessment item for each day or part-day that the assessment item is late.
Note: this applies equally to week and weekend days.
• You must complete all questions
• Each question has equal marks = 10
• Please read through all questions carefully, and then answer the sub-questions completely. You can use the sub-questions as templates/sub-headings to write your answer.
• Make sure your responses have a proper structure with appropriate sub-question numbers and consistent referencing. Follow one referencing system throughout.
• Each important statement that is not your own needs to be referenced, not just the whole paragraph or section. Sentences that are not your own should be paraphrased.
• Complete the referencing tutorial provided in the course material if you are not familiar with what is expected.
Q1: Financing of the health system
The actual process of cost-effectiveness is complex. However, for this task, we will learn how to do the initial assessment of the costs. It is important to differentiate ‘up-front costs’ and ‘downstream costs’ as the initial process of cost-effectiveness. ‘Up-front costs’ are those associated with the resources used to produce the intervention itself (‘resource inputs’), whilst ‘downstream costs’ are those used to manage subsequent events that occur at later stages of care, after the intervention itself has occurred (‘resource consequences’).
For this task, imagine that you are a health system researcher in your country/country of choice. Your research is strongly suggesting that there is a new surgical technique that reduces the relative risk of severe infection, compared with the current standard technique. However, the new technique requires the purchase of an expensive surgical device, thereby incurring a significant ‘up-front cost’ that may also increase the cost of surgery.
Use the following table for this task. Different groups of people/stakeholders will be affected by adopting the new surgical technique:
Mark ‘+’ if you think the particular group of people/stakeholder will positively benefit from this change and ‘-‘ if negative. Mark ‘+/-‘ if you feel they won’t be affected at all.
a) Post your completed table (3 marks) and in few sentences answer this question:
b) Explain the table you have filled – 2 marks
c) Should the hospitals in your country/country of choice adopt the new technique? Give evidence-based justification for your answer (400 words) – 5 marks
Time Horizon Cost Hospital manager/s
(doctors and nurses)
General practitioner who is responsible for before and aftercare of patient Patient and family
Downstream costs Cost of new surgical equipment
Cost of surgery
Cost of primary care
Cost of recovery
Cost of managing recurrences
Cost of managing long-term consequences
All the important statements that are not your own need to be paraphrased and referenced.
Q2: Donor assistance in health systems and policy
Activity: Communication in donor assistance
You are working as the program manager in a local Non-Government Organisation (NGO) that is providing mental health and allied support services for victims of domestic violence. You want to seek long-term funding support for your organisation from a large IT company which has committed 2 percent of their profit towards charity as a part of their goal of ‘Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)’.
Write a high-impact letter to the CEO of the company requesting funding assistance for your NGO. (500 words)
a) Introduce yourself and your organisation (2 marks)
b) Explain your project (2 marks)
c) What are the outcomes of the project? (2 marks)
d) How will the funding help support the project, what is your budget, and how much fund do you need? (2 marks)
e) Pitch/market your project for funding assistance(2 marks)
Hint: There are several sample letters online. You can seek inspiration from them. No references are needed for this task
Q3: Medical products and technology and Health Information System
Mafia Island is an island in Tanzania with a population of approximately 50,000. The island is approachable by boats, however, there is a small airport that is used to send cargo or during an emergency. The purple spots on the map above are district hospitals located on the island and the blue spot is a private primary-care hospital located on the Chole bay area. The roads are dirt roads which are often flooded during the rainy season. Internet connectivity is ‘okay’ closer to the hospitals; however, it can disrupt suddenly during adverse weather conditions.
You are supervising the health system response team in this region. In May 2020, your team has been tasked to conduct a medical device and technology audit of Mafia island. The findings will help your team design a health response plan, in event ofan outbreak of COVID19 on the island. The preliminary data is as follows:
Number of health facilities 2 (secondary care hospitals) + 1 (primary care)
Computerised Tomography machines 0
Radiography machine 1
Oxygen equipment 1
PPE kits 0
Internet connectivity Good at government facilities, needs an upgrade
Your field team also highlighted the difficult road conditions on the island and the lack of trained staff.
a) Reflect on the medical device and technology audit situation of Mafia island considering the four ‘A’s of health technology assessment: Availability, Accessibility,
Appropriate(ness), Affordability – 3 marks
b) Based on your assessment, list 8 actions that are urgently needed to manage the impact of the COVID19 outbreak at Mafia island – 4 marks
c) In the case of the COVID19 outbreak, which type of surveillance are you going to use to monitor the situation? Why? - 1 mark
d) What are the indicators (any 4) that you will monitor during the COVID19 outbreak and the significance of the four indicators? – 2 mark
Word limit – 600 words
Please give references for statements that are not your own.
Q4: Health policy
According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA, “Policy Analysis is the process of identifying potential policy options that could address your problem and then comparing those options to choose the most effective, efficient, and feasible one”.
• ‘Campaign for tobacco-free kids’ is an NGO that collects data on tobacco policies of more than 100 countries. The web link is here: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation
• Select one country, read the policy summary and factsheets of legislation on the country profile.
• Go to the Global Tobacco Surveillance System data (GTSSData) website:
• CDC collects a global tobacco prevalence (smoking and smokeless tobacco) data from several countries. Select any one WHO region, one country, and Youth (GYTS) survey. Take snapshots of the graphs you see.
Critically analyse the data and legislations together. Identify the strengths and gaps in policies.
In 500 words, write a short policy analysis of the tobacco control policy of the country you have chosen. Elaborate your answer based on the following points:
a) Identify and define the problem – 2 marks
b) Review the existing policy – 2 marks
c) Suggest policy options (any 4) – 2 marks
d) Analyse your policy options and explain their implications – 4 marks
The answer should be referenced appropriately.