CHAPTER II – REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
The analysis of literature is divided into three parts. Next, a brief history is discussed on water safety and foreign affairs. After which the elite theory is explored and its related principles of hydro-cultural power. Finally, water protection is analysed for Egypt, Iraq , Jordan and Tunisia in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region.
Water Security and International Relations (IR)
Water Protection Awareness
The holistic and very broad definition of water protection. It is a social system that is popular in domestic , regional and foreign circles. For example, over 400 peer-reviewed studies of water protection have been published in the journals of social , natural and medical sciences between 1992 and 2012. Figure 2 (Bakker 2012) illustrates this.
Figure 5: Water Security Publications 1992-2012 (Bakker 2012)
One of the problems of water safety research is that it has several meanings for scientists and practitioners who have diverse viewpoints based on their scholarly, stakeholder and sector affiliations (2012). In security studies, therefore, the academic literature has identified water protection in various ways and has instigated debate and discussion on various water safety structures and approaches (Allan 1994). The word -water protection- must be clearly described as a class of international relations concerns. The scientist concludes that the term applies to concerns of quality and access. The Agricultural and Economic Research (ABARE) Office of Australia reports that water protection covers human health, environmental issues and water quality. It specifically recognises relationships with wider social , economic , political and environmental systems as well.
Water protection will cover a broad range of dimensions, including climate change , water scarcity, cross-border cooperation and good governance issues, according to the United Nations Water Program (U.N. Water 2013). A panel of United Nations Water Experts describes water security as a population capacity to guarantee the long-term safety of the population from water contamination and water disasters and the preservation of ecosystems in sustainable environments by ensuring that sufficient quality of water sources, livelihoods, human well-being and social and economic growth can be safeguarded. The key goal of water protection is illustrated in this concept , i.e. achieving a wider sense of ecological sustainable development and human security.
The reliable supply of an appropriate quantity and water quality for development, livelihoods and health, combined with a reasonable degree of risk to society for unpredictable water-related impacts, is another important understanding of water protection (Grey and Sadoff 2007).
Climate protection requires activities in three priority regions or elements: control of water supplies, service delivery and water-related risks mitigation (World Bank 2018b). It is axiomatic. They emerged in Table 1 from Table 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals ( SDGs). This mission aims to ensure -water and sanitation for all by 2030 will be accessible and sustainable- (UN 2018).
Table 1: Sixth Sustainable Development Goal - Water and Sanitation (UN 2017)
6.1: Universal and equal access to healthy and accessible drinking water for all by 2030
6.2: In 2030 the rights of women and girls and those in disadvantaged circumstances to adequate and fair sanitation and hygiene was achieved and the open defecation was stopped.
6.3: By 2030 water quality will improve by reducing emissions, disposal and reducing the release of toxic substances and products, halving waste water content and significantly increasing recycling and safe reuse worldwide.
6.4: Sustainable extraction and supply of fresh water in order to tackle water shortage and dramatically reduce the number of people living with water scarcity by 2030.
6.5: Integrated control of capital on all levels, including cross-border cooperation, by 2030,
6.6: By 2020, habitats associated with water, including mountains , forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and seas, will be preserved and restored
6.A: Enhance international cooperation on water and sanitation-related power, wastewater, recycling and reuse technology to improve developed countries by 2030, including water extraction, desalination, water efficiencies and other programmes.
6.B: Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management.
International Relations – Water Security
The reliance of all countries on natural resources varies significantly. The extent that sufficient services are available to ensure its well-being and national life differs also.
The main strategic threats eroding the legitimacy of states and generating domestic anarchy wars are global demographic, environmental and social stress (Kaplan 1994). This culminated in a multidisciplinary analysis of environmental and security relations (McMahon 2017).
(1) While in the International Relations (IR) literature water policy as a natural resource has long been of interest, discussions on security and conflict are relatively recent. The state as the level and unit of study is essential to most IR literature, and security studies. This is not the case in terms of water protection, since water goes beyond several thresholds and the monitoring unit is not always the state (2017). The leading Structural Realists, Kenneth Waltz three-level analysis model, should therefore be approached:
(2) Individual: human traits — perceptions, pictures, comprehension, psychology;
(3) State: decision-making by states; economic power; military power; internal factors; and
(4) System: mutual relations between dispute and collaboration states and non-state stakeholders (Waltz 1979).
Transnational actors, knowledge societies and public and private stakeholder networks play an important role in various water issues during the 21st century (McMahon 2017).
Figure 4: Waltz Three Levels of Analysis
LEVEL 1: INDIVIDUAL
Personality, Perceptions, Activities and Choices.
LEVEL 2: SATATE
Government, Economy, Intereste Groups and National Interests.
LEVEL 3: INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM:
Alliances, International Norms/Rules, Mutlinational Cooperation, Interngovernmantal organizations
Although International Relations ( IR) literature focuses on war and violent cross-state conflicts, there is agreement that cooperation is the dictation of water relations between States instead of violent conflicts (McMahon 2017). Research indicates that there is no likelihood of water insecurity leading to violent conflict among countries (Wolf 2007).
However, other research supposes that -problems of access to freshwater and water insecurity will not only result in domestic violence and warfare- (Setter et al. 2011).
Joseph Nye and Robert Keohanes International Relations Theory of Power Theory claims that there is a number of asymmetric and complex concepts of state interdependence (1997). You explain that two kinds of power exist: hard and soft. Soft power comes as a policy power and the spread of ideas, diplomacy, culture and history.
(Nye, 2004). 2004). The hard power of other states is the use of economic and military means to influence their behaviour. For security studies this theory of power is relevant. On the other hand, a developing Nation has considerably more power and therefore controls a wider range of resources, both in its own territory and within the borders of poorer countries, which it can use to promote its own growth. For example, many states struggle to have enough water to satisfy their development needs, rivalry for this resource does not result in direct water wars, but it may intensify current power struggles between states and help to bring about bilateral or regional tension. In regional and foreign power politics, Water was used as a strategic weapon (Zawahris 2008)
Moreover, in view of the UNs inclusion of this objective and a mandate for transparent and inclusive institutions at all levels (SDG 16), -action is required in order not to continue to leak water resources through systematic and systemic corruption- (Transparency International). In the sense of building -integrities- walls for openness, accountability, engagement and anti-corruption policies , institutions and decision-makers will play a critical role in Water Integrity Network Outlook (WIGO) (2016). All of this will lead to the national as well as regional securitization of the water sector. In comparison to open warfare, however, -global civil disorder, transition of governments , political radicalization and chaos- will have the most likely implications (Homer- Dixon et al . 1993). Water shortages will aggravate conflicts and conflict within societies.
The definition of -elites- has become one of the mantras that are controversial and elusive in the social sciences. Elites are tiny classes of people possessing disproportionate control and strength (Britannica 2019). In his masterpiece The Spirit and Culture (1956), the word goes back to the writings of the Italien philosopher, Elfredo Pareto (1848-1932). Elites are a group of corporate, government and military leaders sharing common interests, societal assets and values within their dominant sector (Mills, 1956). They are members of government agencies (legislatures, presidencies, cabinets, political parties), civil bureaucracies, military and security forces, large corporations and corporate associations. They also represent major landowning interest groups; labour unions.
The definition of -elite- has historically been used to examine social contexts, especially with regard to history mobility and systemic types of human journeys, in their most important manifestations. In studying social complexity with its problematic and interrelated nature researchers have used this term very widely.
The current theory of elite refers to the term elites as stakeholders which control capital, occupy key positions and communicate through power and influence networks (Yamokoski and Dubrow 2008). Two key elite theories: classical elite and pluralist élite are discussed in the literature review.
Classical Elite Theory
A -single-track- ideology, based on the social class struggle between property owners and the proletariats – working classes –, is opposed to the traditional elite theory (Bottomore 1993). Moreover, a multicausal approach as well as minority domina tion is required to research human society, which is a -unmistakable- characteristic of human society (Mosca in 1939). The ruling elites, for example, may be individuals as a social group who play a significant role in the highest power level, directly or indirectly (Pareto, 1935).
Pluralist/ Strategic Elite Theory
The subject of this theory is the pluralist establishment system that can be related to economic, political and environmental issues. (Republic of Korom 2015). It also applies to working and political leaders. The creation of strategic elites includes four processes: -population growth, labour division rise, the rise of structured organisations and moral diversity growth- (Keller 1963).
These elites establish their individuality and power-related hierarchy (Khan 2012). For example, in Western societies such as Germany, the USA, etc., there are numerous elites (Dahrendorf, 1962; Mannheim, 1940). Dahrendorf argues that society consists of a multitude of interest groups that produce a large number of attitudes and disputes and that each group has a loosely organised group of persons occupying similar positions (1962).
Analysis and Criticism
There are various critiques of C-led classical and pluralist classes. Pierre Bourdieu and Wright Mills. The word -elites- means that a few upper class members will govern a different social areas, says Mills, (1956). Mills (1956) Bourdieu (1999) has reinforced this stance, believing that the ruling class will continue its conventional demands for key social leadership functions. The social distribution of power as well as government and education systems (1999) he also criticizes.The subordinate classes, by its name -their habitus,- or cultural capital, are believed to contribute to their being goals in the realisation of power (1999).
Elites and Water Security
The role of elites in comparative water security studies is relatively little studied. However, a number of topics covered the idea of elite, among them political elites (Suckerman 1977), industrial elites (Boschi and Diniz, 2004), the military elites (Mills, 1995), media elites (Lopez, 2012), faith elites (Wald, 1992), elite athletes (Lorenz 2013) and science elites (Zuckerman, 1995). Every society of government, profession and religion, and all other institutional realms, they are important constituents(Mills 1956; Pareto 1935).
-Water elites- have unclear features, provided that their status can differ with a spectrum of validity. The use of this modern language must also be regulated. Many professions may have water leaders, including hydrologists, electrical mechanics engineers, water managers , researchers and other individuals, who are skilled, influential and well placed with respect to water resources. This elite may or may not have any impact on national or regional water policy , especially in authoritarian ruling countries or even the rest of the elites. The political leadership and decision makers may also not think of water in the same terms that the water elite does.
The leading position of the Egyptian-Greek engineer Adrian Daninos in proposing the building of the high dam on the river Nile represents a strong classic case of the water elite. Daninos proposed to the government of King Farouk an ambitious proposal before the 1952 revolution but it was always rejected. In 1953 Daninos agreed to bring the project to President Jamal Abdul Alnaser s new Egyptian government. The building of an enormous dam in Aswan saved the water from the Nile flood and produced electric energy using this large quantity of water.The Egyptian government accepted the project (Collins 2000).
This research therefore describes or suggests that the water elites should possess the following characteristics:
a. a. Global water-related experience;
b. b. At least five years of water training in high-level professionals;
c. c. publication to their credit of conference papers;
d. d. Active membership and positions in national , regional and/or international water issues organisations.
Water Security in the Middle East and North Africa Region
For every country in the MENA region, water is a popular security challenge. This group comprises 22 nations, including: Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt , Iran, Iraq , Jordan, Cambodia, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya , Morocco, Oman , Qatar , Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, the United States, the West Bank and Gaza, and Iran. These countries are categorised according to their wealth in three groups. Firstly, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco , Tunisia, Lebanon and Jibouti are resource-poor and labour-abundant economies. Secondly, Algeria, Islamic Republic of Iran , Iraq, the Syrian Arab Republic and Yemen constitute the resource-rich and labor-intensive economies. Third, Saudi Arabia , the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar , Oman and Bahrain are the resource rich and labour consuming economies (Dobler 2011).
According to the Fragile Countries Index (FSI), some MENA countries, including Irak, Syria , Yemen and Libya, are very fragile because their level of growth exceeds their governance ability, thus perpetuating the risk of social unrest. On the other hand, several relatively stable MENA countries, including Jordan, Egypt and Tunisia (Dimsdale and Mabey 2018) are necessary if regional stability is to be maintained.There are three main areas for water protection in the MENA area: IWRM; water services; and water conservation (World Bank 2018). Water safety in the region is the most critical sector.
Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM)
The tight water supplies make the current political fragility of MENA even more difficult. It emerges in part from the control of three scarcity levels (World Bank 2007). Firstly , physical resources are limited, ensuring that the maximum amount of water is regulated, people are shielded from fluctuations on supply and water is distributed to consumers in the field of engineering. Secondly, organisational ability shortage focuses on competent water resource management organisations to deliver quality facilities as effectively as possible.
Two thirds of the total MENA water supply is provided by surface water. The MENA is home to over half of its clean water supplies.
Thus the Tigris Euphrates, the Nile, the Jordan River and Medjerda are critical for lighting up the regions basins. These cross-border resources are connected with a range of interdependencies between climate, politics, economic and security. Multiple, dynamic, human-driven and natural stresses continue to influence and degrade these basins. Iraq and Egypt, for example, depend almost entirely on transboundary water supplies from the outside (Figure 3). Superficial and underground water such as Jordan and Tunisia is used by other MENA countries.
The Global Facility for the Environment (GEF) initiated Transboundary Waters Assessment Program (TWAP) allocated relative level of risk across a spectrum of six topic groups with sets of indicators to transboundary water basins (De Stefano et al . 2016).
The first group is water quality with three indicators:
1. Water tension for the climate,
2. Stress of human water
3. Water stress farming.
The second category consists of two metrics on water quality:
1. Pollution of nutrients
2. Pollution of waste water.
The third community consists of four ecosystems:
1. Disconnectedness of wetlands,
2. The effect of dam on the environment
3. Fishing danger
4. Chance of extinguishing.
Including three indicators, the fourth is governance:
1. Judicial background,
2. Hydro-political burden
3. Enable environment. Enable environment.
Finally, there are three measures in the socio-economic group:
1. Dependence on water supplies economically,
2. Well-being in culture
3. Influx and droughts risk
(UNEP DHI and United Nations Economic Policy, 2016). These are: very low (1), low (2), moderate (3), high (4) and very high (5) These risk levels:
The longest river in the world is the Nile. As its basin covers all the countries of Egypt, Sudan, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Congo, Rwanda , Burundi, Uganda and Tanzania the Nile is subject to political interaction. The Nile consists of the White Nile, the Blue Nile and the Atbara River. (British Encyclopedia). The relative average risk for the basin is low (Level 2) (2016), according to the TWAP evaluation.
Figure 6: Comparable Large River Basins - MENA Region
Tigris –Euphrates River Basin ( Pearce, 2014) The Nile River Basin (Ayeb, 2013)
Before entering the Persian Gulf, the Euphrates flows from Turkey, through Syria and Iraq. The Tigris in Turkey rises further east and traverses Iraq. It goes along a parallel path towards the Euphrates before the two rivers in the southern marshes mix water. The relative average risk for this basin is 4 (High) (2016), as per TWAP assessments. TWAP assessment. The researchers shall provide more comparable and contrasting data from the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates basins and shall concentrate the Egyptian and Iraqi Basin Country Units in Chapter 4 , respectively. It flows southwards through northern Israel to Tiberius Lake on the slopes of the occupied Syrian Golan Heights, at the border between Syria and Lebanon. It continues southwards, dividing Israel and the Western Palestinian Occupied Territories (OPTs) into the Dead Sea (Encyclopedia Britannica 2020) from Jordan to the East.
The relative average risk level is Very high for this basin (level 5) (2016), according to the TWAP evaluation.
The Medjerda River flows through Tunisia and into the Mediterranean Sea from Northeast Algeria. The relative average risk level for this basin is 5 (Very High) according to the TWAP evaluation.
The researcher will provide more comparable and contrasting details of these two basins (Jordan and Medjerda) in Chapter five.
Figure 7: Relative Comparable Small River Basins- MENA Region
Jordan River Basin ( Libiszewski, (1995) Medjerda River Basin (REC 2020)
The challenges for MENA Transborder River Basins can be addressed by recommending and implementing effective and efficient practises at national and regional levels in Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM).
IWRM is a framework designed to improve the management of water resources based on Dublin-Rio Principles in 1992 (WMO 1992). The increasing scarcity of water resources due to different conflicting use and over-use of water is recognised by these principles. Principle 1 states that “ fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource essential to sustain life, development , and the environment. The main emphasis on the need to build on the participatory approach of water development and administration, involving users, planners and policy makers at all levels. Main 3 emphasises the importance of women in the provision, administration and protection of water. In all its conflicting uses, the main four States water has an economic benefit and must be considered an agricultural commodity. MENA countries have made efforts to integrate into their tres fields, water supply , water demand management and water relocation, these fundamental concepts of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM).
The MENA region of Middle Africa is arid in some areas and since the water there appears to be distributed uniformly -(Snow, 2008). Water, as a natural resource is not enough for current use. It comprises around 0.7% of the freshwater resource available worldwide (CEDARE 2006).
Figure 8: Annual Renewable Freshwater Resources per Capita (m3/person/year, 2012)
Table 2: Relevant MENA Country Water Supply and Demand (Consolidated Data)
MENA Country Unit Water Supply & Demand Indicators Iraq Egypt Jordan Tunisia
Population in 2010 (in thousands) (WPP 2010) 31,672 81,121 6,187 10,481
Population in 2050 (in thousands) (WPP 2019) 83,357 123,452 9,882 12,649
Total annual renewable water resources, 2010 (in 109 m3/yr) 75.61 11.67 0.937 4.595
Total annual water resources per capita, 2010 (in m3/person/year) 2387 329 151.4 438.4
Total annual water withdrawals,
2005 or most recent year (in 109 m3/yr) 66 (in
2000) 6.161 (in 2000) 0.941 2.85 (in 2001)
Total annual water withdrawals per capita, 2005 or most recent year (in m3/person/year) 2616 (in
2000) 195.9 (in 2000) 166 295.8 (in 2001)
Water Demand Management (WDM)
The shortage of water supplies from MENA remains a key concern.
The key explanation for this may be the rising difference between the declining efficient supply and increased demand for water.
There are a number of concepts in water demand management (WDM). Its known simply as -having the most water we have- (Brooks 2007). Finally, the IDRC provides a succinct description specific to the MENA zone. The IDRC provides a simple description. WDM is described -any implementation of practises or policies which will lead to a more efficient, fair and sustainable water use- (Arafa et al . 2007).
While water governance, the change in management paradigm, focuses on several aspects of ensuring the sustainable use and distribution of water resources, the reallocation of water resources may be one of the best policy options of order to meet these goals. Systemically, reassignment tackles the topic of unequal water resources distribution. This ensures that water is distributed and allocated equitably. But water restructuring demands strong and more rigorous water decisions which, because of the lack of well-structured and decentralised institutional structures, are complex and may even be contentious in the developing countries (Grigg,2008)(Bruch & Jessica, 2011).
Water- Related Risk Mitigation
The MENA water stakeholders are advancing, but in slow motion in response to internal and external problems in water and sanitation (Rached & Brooks 2010). Water is being improved. A multi-sector collaboration strategy that includes domestic , regional and international capital and expertise from -service agencies, international financial institutions, diplomatic engagement, private-sector innovation and the armed forces- must therefore be created. (Risi, 2018).
The Water Industry of MENA has seen broader stakeholders involved in a number of ways , for example in the establishment of the Amman, Jordan, Arab Countries Water Utilities Association in 2009 (ACWUA 2019). The MENA region also has other mechanisms for water management which, because of myriad geopolitical and socio-cultural factors, are experiencing inter- and inter-state conflict and resulting instability. The freshwater shortage crisis tops the list of its environmental problems , for example, it is the driestriest area of the planet. Freshwater is now -under the international level of 1,700 cubic metres, which describes water-stressing countries, and is now accessible in most MENA countries- (PRP 2019). People in the region have almost the same water needs as in the other regions. Water for home, drinking, commercial, municipal and food production should be available. The temperatures in the area are high , which means that fresh water has a high degree of evaporation. In the Middle East, there is rapid population growth, thus rising the demand for water. By 2050, roughly 60 percent of the water supply in the area is from outside (EXACT, 1998; Falkenmark, 2001; Lancaster, 1999; Ohlsson, 1999).
According to Bar and Stang (2016), several experts are currently agreeing that political uncertainty and water insecurity can be related to climate change that will inevitably exacerbate political instability. This thesis focuses on the region of the Middle East and North Africa as the worlds water-scarce nation. It is not surprising that the MENA governments regard water issues as national security issues. The MENA area is home to approximately 5 % of the world s population, but has less than 1% (Swain and Jägerskog, 2016).).
The World Bank (2008c) notes that the natural water supply available is around 20 percent higher than the general water demand. In addition, there is insufficient water management and use, waste, outdated water networks and infrastructures, as well as a lack of fiscal, political and legal mechanisms for managing transboundary water resources. The regions natural water pressures have risen as a result of climate change. Researchers argue that it as an agent that multiplies menaces by escalating global uncertainty, conflicts and developments is the best way to tackle climate change. This statement is right since the area is already unstable and conflict prone(European Commission, 2008). The European Union ( EU) states that climate change directly affects European interests with humanitarian consequences and political and safety threats (EU 2008). Climate change responses should also be multilateral and multi-sectoral. The NATO released a study that the scourging for resources has led to increased regional instability (NATO 2007) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The NATO report strongly advises worsening and conflict causing social , environmental and economic problems even though conventional causes are essential triggers. The combination of misgovernance, conflict, climate change and demographics has worsened the situation, Martens (2017). Martens points out Protection, water shortage, and climate change are the confluence of crises in MEAN regions (Schaar 2019) according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). He claims that -MENA states are repressing democratic debate and action on the water and climatic crises in authoritarian and militarised regimes, and seeing opponents as threats to national security. But the economic interests and role of the elite in the political economy are making them vulnerable to new threats and menaces (Schaar 2019).
Serageldin (2001 ) argues that a failure to respond to water crises and shortages in Egypt, Yemen and Syria has led to the emergence of the -Arab Spring.- The Syrian government , for example, failed sufficiently to respond against the regions prolonged drought. Furthermore, miscalculated national policies have led to drastic water crises affecting agricultural land, thus increasing critical products prices. The regions water crisis reached its national borders with a mass migratory migration to Europe. (SIWI 2016).
The boundaries between Israel are with Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. These countries also share water resources (Dellapenna 2001; Sharif 1996). They also share water resources. Israel has produced a massive amount of water for domestic or industrial use, making it the water powerhouse of the world (Wolf, 1995; Odeinheimer, 2017). This has also led to technical changes. In order to deal with water protection, Israel and Jordan have come together. This intervention has made Israel increase the Jordanian water supply sufficiently to satisfy its people and the Syrian refugees. (Kolars, 1990; Allan, 1996; Haddadin, 2002).
ACWUA is a centre of excellence for partners with Arab water and waste water suppliers to create capacity within institutions and implement best practise to help utilities achieve their target (ACWUA 2019). The Arabian Water Ulities Association (ACWUA) is a centre of excellence. In addition to private sector firms, NGOs (NGOs), academic institutes and individual members (2019), it has over 100 water supply firms from 18 Arab countries. Another regional NGO, the Arab Water Council (AWC), was founded in 2004 and is based in Cairo , Egypt. (AWC 2019).
In 2018 Jordan founded the Middle East Water Forum. It is a networking forum for water and energy experts involved in MENA water projects (MEWF 2020). In addition to water issues of regional interests and serving as the regional information centre for Middle East countries, particularly Arab countries, MEWF seeks to disseminate innovation trends in water; facilitates and fosters online dialogue among water services staff, companies and experts and works collaboratively to find innovative solutions in water resources management (2020).
ABARE (Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Research Economics). (1995). US Farm Bill, US agricultural policies on the eve of the 1995 farm bill. ABARE Policy Monograph No. 5. Canberra: Australian Publishing Service.
Allan, John Anthony. (1994). Overall perspectives on countries and regions. In Water in the Arab World: Perspectives and Prognoses. Edited by P. Rogers and P. Lydon. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Allan, John Anthony. (1996). “The Jordan-Israel Peace Agreement”, Appendices 1 and 2. In Water, Peace and the Middle East: Negotiating Resources in the Jordan Basin.
Swain, Ashok and Anders Jägerskog.(2016). “Water, Migration and How They Are Interlinked”, Working paper 27, Stockholm International Water Institute. Retrieved on May 4, 2019 from: http://www.siwi.org/publications/paper-migration/
Martens, Maria. (2017). ‘Food and Water Security in the Middle East and North Africa’, Special Report [082 STC 17 E], 2017. Retrieved on May 5, 2019 from: https://www.nato-pa.int/download-file?filename=sites/default/files/2017-11/2017%20-%20176%20STC%2017%20E%20bis-%20FOOD%20AND %20WATER%20SECURITY%20MENA%20-%20MARTENS%20REPORT.pdf
Council of the European Union and the European Commission. (2008). “ Climate Change and International Security Paper”. Retrieved on March 1, 2019 from: https://publications.europa.eu/s/m2BM
Dellapenna, J. (2001). The Evolving International Law of Trans-national Aquifers. In Management of Shared Groundwater Resources: The Israeli-Palestinian Case with an International Perspective. Edited by E. Feitelson and M. Haddad. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Droogers, P., W.W. Immerzeel, W. Terink, J. Hoogeveen, M.F.P. Bierkens, L.P.H. Van Beek, B. Debele. (2012). “Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050.” Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3101-3114.
Dyson, T. (1994). Population growth and food production: recent global and regional trends. Population and Development Review 20: 397–411.
Elmusa, Sharif. (1996). Negotiating Water: Israel and the Palestinians. Washington, DC: Institute of Palestinian Studies.
Executive Action Team (EXACT). (1998). Overview of Middle East Water Resources. Middle East Water Data Banks Project, a Multilateral Working Group of the Middle East Peace Process. Washington: United States Geological Survey.
Falkenmark, M. (2001). The greatest water problem: the inability to link environmental security, water security and food security. International Journal of Water Resources Development 17: 539–554.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO-UN). (2011). Food and Groundwater Management in the Near East Region Synthesis Report Rome. Retrieved on February 17, 2019 from: http://www.groundwatergovernance.org/ fileadmin/user_upload/groundwatergovernance/docs/Country_studies/Near_East_Region_Synthesis_Report_Final_Groundwater_Management.pdf
Gassert, f., M. landis, M. luck, P. Reig and T. Shiao. (2013). “Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0.” Working Paper, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Retrieved on June 12, 2019 from: http://www.wri.org/publication/aqueductmetadata-global.
Haddadin, Munther. (2002). Diplomacy on the Jordan: International Conflict and Negotiated Resolution. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Ionides, M. G. (2003). “The Disputed Waters of the Jordan.” Middle East Journal, Vol 7:153-164.
Kolars, J. (1990). “The Course of Water in the Arab Middle East”. American-Arab Affairs 33: 56–68.
Lancaster, Fidelity. (1999). People, Land and Water in the Arab Middle East: Environments and Landscapes in the Bilad Ash-Sham. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Lorenz, D. S., Reiman, M. P., Lehecka, B. J., and Naylor, A. (2013). What performance characteristics determine elite versus nonelite athletes in the same sport? Sports health, 5(6), 542-7.
Lowdermilk, W. (1994). Palestine: The Land of Promise. New York: Harper & Row.
Lowi, M. R. (1994). Water and Power: The Politics of a Scarce Resource in the Jordan River Basin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Medzini, A. (2001). The River Jordan: The Struggle for Frontiers and Water: 1920–1967. London: SOAS Water Issues Group.
Odeinheimer, N., “Israel, a regional water superpower”, The Jerusalem Post, March 2017
Ohlsson, Leif. 1999. Environment, Scarcity, and Conflict––A Study of Malthusian Concerns. PhD dissertation, Dept. of Peace and Development Research, University of Göteborg.
Grey, D. and Sadoff, C.W. (2007). “Sink or Swim? Water Security for Growth and Development.” Water Policy 9(6): 545–571.
Serageldin, I. 2001. “The Challenge of the Coming Generation.” International Journal of Water Resources Development 17: 521–525.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA Sage.
The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation (FAO) and World Bank Group (2018). “Water Management in Fragile Systems Building Resilience to Shocks and Protracted Crises in the Middle East and North Africa”. Discussion Paper. Cairo. Retrieved on June 3rd, 2019 from: https://www.worldbank.org/ en/topic/water/publication/water-management-in-fragile-systems
World Bank Group. (2018a). “Beyond Scarcity: Water Security in the Middle East and North Africa.” Retrieved on February 15, 2019 from: Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.
United Nations University, UNU-INWEH, and UNESCAP. (2013). -Water Security and the Global Water Agenda-, UN-Water Analytical Brief on Water Security and the Global Water Agenda. Retrieved on February 1, 2019 from : https://www.unwater.org/publications/water-security-global-water-agenda/
United Nations. (2018). The Sustainable Development Goals Report. New York: United Nations. Retrieved on March 10, 2019 from: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/files/ report/2018/TheSustainableDevelopmentGoalsReport2018-EN.pdf
Waterbury, J. (1999). The Hydro-politics of the Nile. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
Wolf, A. T. (1995). Hydropolitics along the Jordan River: Scarce Water and its Impact on the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Yin, Robert K.(2018).Case study research and applications: Design and methods. 6th Edition. Sage publications.
Geertz, Clifford. (1973). -Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture-. In The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books.1-30.
Rached, Eglal and Brooks, David B. (2010). “Water Governance in the Middle East and North Africa: An Unfinished Agenda”, International Journal of Water Resources Development, 26:2, 141-155, DOI: 10.1080/07900621003693321
Risi, Laurne. (2018) “Beyond Water Wars”. Environmental Change and Security Program, Wilson Center. 2019. Retrieved on August 17, 2019 from: https://www.wilsonquarterly.com/quarterly/water-in-a-world-of-conflict/beyond-water-wars/
Zeitoun, M., Lankford, B., Bakker, K., Conway, D. (2013). “Introduction: A Battle of Ideas for Water Security,” in: Lankford, B., Bakker, K., Zeitoun, M., Conway, D. (Eds.), Water Security: Principles, perspectives, practice. Routledge, London.
Zuckerman, Alan. -The Concept of Political Elite: Lessons from Mosca and Pareto.- The Journal of Politics 39, no. 2 (1977): 324-44. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2130054.
Zuckerman, Harriet.(1995). Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ
The Arab Water Council (AWC) (2019). Retrieved on May 25, 2019 from: http://www.arabwatercouncil.org
Arab Countries Water Utilities Association (ACWUA) (2019). Retrieved on April 2nd, 2019 from: https://www.acwua.org
Snow, Donald M. (2008). National Security for a New Era: Globalization and Geopolitics After Iraq. Pearson Longman.
2016 Stockholm International Water Institute, (SIWI). (2016). “Water, migration and how they are interlinked.” Working Paper 27. Retrieved on May 23, 2019 from: https://www.siwi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/2016-Water-Report-Chapter-1-FINAL-Web.pdf
Fink, Arlene. 2003b. The Survey Kit: How to Manage, Analyze, and Interpret Survey Data. 2nd ed. California: Sage Publications, Ltd.
The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF).( 2017). WASH: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Providing safe water to children around the (MENA) region. Retrieved on January 15, 2019 from: https://www.unicef.org/mena/wash
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).(2013). Water governance in the Arab region: Managing scarcity and securing the future. Retrieved on February 25, 2019 from: https://www.undp.org/content/dam/rbas/doc/ Energy%20and%20Environment/Arab_Water_Gov_Report/Arab_Water_Gov_Report_Full_Final_Nov_27.pdf.
United Nation on Water (N-Water). (2013). “What is Water Security?”. Retrieved on February 3, 2019 from: https://www.unwater.org/publications/water-security-infographic/
Hamel, J., Dufour, S. and Fortin, D. (1993). Case study methods. Sage Publications, Newbury Park.
Schaar, Johan. “A Confluence Of Crises: On Water, Climate And Security In The Middle East And North Africa. (2019).” SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security, No. 2019/4. Retrieved on October 26, 2019 from: https://www.sipri.org/publications/2019/sipri-insights-peace-and- security/confluence-crises-water-climate-and-security-middle-east-and-north-africa
Mills, C Wright. (1956). The Power Elite, Oxford University Press, 1956.
Boschi R and Diniz E.(2004). Empresários, interesses e mercado: dilemas do desenvolvimento no Brasil. Belo Horizonte: Editora UFMG.
Wald, Kenneth D. (1992). “Religious Elites and Public Opinion: The Impact of the Bishops Peace Pastoral.” Review of Politics 54: 112— 43.
Lobez, A. (2012). The Media Ecosystem: What ecology can teach us about responsible media practice. Berkeley, CA; Evolver Editions.
Pareto, Vilfredo, The Mind and Society: A Treatise on General Sociology, translated by Andrew Bongiorno and Arthur Livingston. New York: Dover Publications, 1963, a reprint of the 1935 translation of the 1916 Trattato di Sociologia Generale
Bar, I. and Stang, G. (2016).-Water and insecurity in the Levant-.Brief Issue. European Union Institute for Security Studies ( EUISS).
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). (2007). “Growing Dangers: Emerging and Developing Security Threats.” Retrieved on June 9, 2019 from:https://www.nato.int/docu/review/2007/issue4/english/ analysis5.html
Pahl-Wostl, C., Gupta, J. & Bhaduri, A. (2016). “Water security: a popular but contested concept.” In C. Pahl-Wostl, A. Bhaduri, & J. Gupta J (Eds.). Handbook on Water Security (pp. 1 - 16). Cheltenham, UK, Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Hamel, J., Dufour, S. and Fortin, D.(1993). Case Study Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Perry, J.L. and K.L. Kraemer.(1986). “Research methodology in the Public Administration Review, 1975–1984”. Public Administration Review 46(3): 215–226
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2019). “Elites” in. Retrieved on July 1, 2019 from: https://www.britannica.com/search?query=elites
Yin, R.K. (2008b). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 4th Edition, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.
Sartori, Giovanni. (1991). -Comparing and Miscomparing.- Journal of Theoretical Politics, vol. 3(3), pages 243-257, July.
Landman, Todd (2008) Issues and Methods in Comparative Politics: An Introduction. 3rd Edition, London: Routledge.
Hakim, Catherine .(2000). “Research design: successful designs for social and economic research.” Social research today. (2nd Re). Routledge, London, UK.
Jane Ritchie & Jane Lewis (Eds.) (2003). Qualitative Research Practice. A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers. Sage Publication. NewYork.
World Resources Institute (WRI) (2019). Water Stress Baseline. Retrieved on September 2, 2019 from: https://www.wri.org/applications/ aqueduct/country-rankings/
The Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources. (2019). Egypt Water Strategy 2050. Retrieved on August 29, 2019 from: https://www.mwri.gov.eg/images/pdf/2019/Water-Staretgy-2050.pdf
Dohrmann, M., and Hatem, R. (2014). “The Impact of Hydro-Politics on the Relations of Turkey, Iraq, and Syria.” Middle East Journal, 68(4), 567-583. Retrieved on May 3rd, 2019 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/43698183
United Nation Development Program(UNDP) (2018). Water Poverty Index in Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). Retrieved on April 22, 2019 from http://hdr.undp.org/en/2018-MPI
Palestinian Water Authority(PWA). (2019). Main Challenges of Water Security. Retrieved on September 20, 2019 from: http://pwa.ps/page.aspx?id=7H390Ga2553553299a7H390G
The Iraqi Ministry of Water Resources (IMWR). (2019). Strategic Vision of Water Resources in Iraq. Retrieved on May 2nd, 2019 from: www.mowr.gov.iq
World Bank (2014.) “Water: Tunisia’s Other Development Challenge.” Retrieved on March 29, 2019 from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/ 2014/09/04/ water-tunisia-s-other-development-challenge
Karasapan, Omer. (2015.) “The Impact of Libyan Middle-Class Refugees in Tunisia.” Brooking Institute. Retrieved on May 18, 2019 from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/future-development/2015/03/17/the-impact-of-libyan-middle-class-refugees-in-tunisia/
Benabdallah, S. (2007). “The water resources and water management regimes in Tunisia.” In: Agricultural Water Management: Proceedings of a Workshop in Tunisia (Series: Strengthening Science-Based Decision Making in Developing Countries), Holliday, L. (Ed).The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C
Hantrais, Linda.(2009). International Comparative Research: Theory, Methods, and Practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Greene, J. C., Garacelli, V. J and Graham, W. F (1989) “Toward a Conceptual Framework of Mixed-Method Evaluation Designs.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Vol 11, No 3, PP 255-274.
Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social &. Behavioural Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Willis, G. B. (1999). Cognitive Interviewing: A “How To” guide. Research Triangle Institute, Meeting of the American Statistical Association. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.
Denscombe, M. (2007). The Good Research Guide: For Small-Scale social Research projects. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Burns, N. and Grove, S.K. (2005). The Practice of Nursing Research Conduct, Critique and Utilization. 5th Edition, Elsevier Saunders, Missouri.
United Nations. (2019). The Sustainable Development Goals Report Retrieved on July 3rd, 2019 from: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2019/The-Sustainable-Development-Goals-Report-2019.pdf
Yin, Robert K. (2014). Case Study Research Design and Methods. 5th Edition, Sage, Thousand Oaks.
Keller, Suzanne. (1963). Beyond The. Ruling Class. Strategic Elites In Modern Society. New York. Random House.
Mills, C. Wright.( 1956). The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre.(1999) The State Nobility: Elite Schools in the Field of Power. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.
Korom, Philipp (2015). Elites: History of the Concept . Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, Cologne, Germany.Elsevier Ltd.
Khan, S.R. (2012). The sociology of elites. Annual Review of Sociology 38, 361–377.
Mannheim, K. (1940). Man and Society in the Age of Reconstruction. Harcourt, Brace, New York.
Dahrendorf, R.(1962. Eine neue deutsche Oberschicht? Notizen über die Eliten der Bundesrepublik (A new German upper class? Notes about the elites of the Federal Republic). Die Neue Gesellschaft 9, 18–31.
Bottomore, T.B. (1993). Elites and Society. Routledge, London/New York. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
Mosca, G. (1939). The Ruling Class. McGraw-Hill, New York/London (Originally Published in 1896).
Pareto, V. (1935). The Mind and Society: A Treatise on General Sociology. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York
Yamokoski, Alexis and Joshua Kjerulf Dubrow. (2008.) “How Do Elites Define Influence? Personality and Respect as Sources of Social Power.” Sociological Focus, 41(4): 319-336.
Alshenqeeti, H. (2014). “Interviewing as a Data Collection Method: A Critical Review”. English Linguistics Research, 3(1), 39.
Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Yin, Robert K. (2013d). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
McNamara, Carter (1999). General Guidelines for Conducting Interviews, Minnesota.
DiCicco-Bloom, B., & Crabtree, B. F. (2006). The qualitative research interview. Medical Education, 40(4), 314-321.
Drew, H. (2014). “Overcoming barriers: Qualitative interviews with German elites.” Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 12(2), 77-86.
Collins, Robert O. (2000). -In Search of the Nile Waters, 1900–2000-. The Nile: Histories, Cultures, Myths. Edited by Haggai Erlich and Israel Gershoni. Lynne Rienner. pp. 255–256.
Fischhendler, Itay. (2015). -The securitization of water discourse: theoretical foundations, research gaps and objectives of the special issue,- International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 245-255, September.
Buckles, Daniel [editor]. 1999. Cultivating Peace: Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource Management (English). World Bank Institute (WBI) case studies. Washington, D.C. : The World Bank. Retrieved on December 29, 2019 from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/736751468763823602/Cultivating-peace-conflict-and-collaboration-in-natural-resource-management
Water Integrity Global Outlook (WIGO) 2016. Retrieved on December 26, 2019 from: http://www.waterintegritynetwork.net/wigo/.
Brooks, David. (1996). “Between the Great Rivers: Water in the Heart of the Middle East”, in Rathgeber, EM, Brooks, DB, Rached, E. editors. Water Management in Africa and the Middle East: Challenges and Opportunities. International Development Research Centre (IDRC).
Thomas Homer-Dixon, Jeffrey H. Boutwell and George W. Rathjens. (1993). Environmental Change and Violent Conflict. Scientific American. February.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (1997). Irrigation in the Near East region in Figures. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4356E/W4356E00.htm.