Design and apply make-up for photography
Getting started 1
Section A Prepare for treatment 3
Section B Analyse the face 15
Section C Analyse the context 27
Section D Apply the make-up 47
Information about this learner guide
The guide has been designed to help you develop the skills and knowledge required to design and apply make-up for photography. It covers the following elements of competency:
1. Prepare client
2. Cleanse face
3. Analyse face
4. Analyse context
5. Apply make-up
Section A Prepare for treatment
What you will cover in this section
The two steps to Prepare for treatment are:
Step 1 Consulting the client
Step 2 Preparing the client for service
This section covers how to prepare to perform a make-up service for photography. This includes consulting the client to identify common contra-indications and assessing a client's skin type and condition in preparation for the service.
Step 1 Consulting the client
The initial client consultation is one of the most important parts of the make-up service for photography purposes. It allows you to build a rapport with the client, gaining their trust and confidence and to collect and discuss crucial information about the photographic context for which the make-up is being applied. This information will determine the make-up plan you design, the products you choose and the most appropriate application techniques to match the desired photographic context. During the consultation and preparation stages you need to identify:
• skin type
• client facial characteristics
• allergies to cosmetics
• areas requiring camouflage.
Contra-indications are symptoms and characteristics that make the application of make-up inadvisable. Contra indications are often confined to a particular area of skin and do not usually affect the whole face. Clients may have cuts, acne and other skin problems or conditions that can impact on the make-up service and the products used.
It is important that you discuss any contra indications and what they mean in relation to the make-up service with your client. It is likely that, if it is a persistent condition, the client will be aware of it and has a program of treatment in place. This should also be discussed with the client. On the other hand, it may be a temporary condition, such as sunburn, that is severe enough to require a re-scheduling of the photographic session.
You should be sensitive to any issues, concerns or embarrassment the client may have and deal with these tactfully and discreetly..
Learning activity A1.1
Complete the table below. Include what action you would take for each contra-indication. Some examples have been completed for you. Identify any other contra-indications for this service.
Contra-indication Possible implications for make-up service Action
Dry skin The client may have allergies.
If dry skin is excessively flaky, an infection could result. Use an intensive moisturiser
Open wounds, cuts or abrasions Make-up application may increase chances of infection If the skin problem can not be made up, camera or presentation angles may need to be altered
Infections (such as flu, eye infections, herpes) Make-up application may result in cross-infection Always use universal infection control precautions.
Weeping eczema Skin will be very sore and dry.
Make-up application likely to cause infection.
Hypersensitive skin Skin will be very sensitive.
Make-up application could be very painful
Acne (various types)
Cosmetic and general surgery
Other skin disorders
Learning activity A2.2
Read each of the following scenarios and make a note of what you would say to the client and if you would provide the make-up service. Give your reasons for your decision.
A client requests a make-up service for a portrait shot. You notice she has dry, flaky skin.
A young girl requests a make-up service for a debutante portrait. You notice she has a severe case of acne.
Step 2 Preparing the client for service
Following are some key points you should consider when preparing a client for a make-up session.
Preparation Key points
Ensure client comfort • Ensure the client’s chair or couch is comfortable.
• Ensure they are in a comfortable position that they can maintain for the time required.
• Ensure they have the opportunity to stand up or stretch between make-up application stages.
• Ensure the room temperature is at a comfortable setting.
Protect their clothes • Provide a cape to protect their clothes.
• Make sure there are clean protective garments and towels available for each client.
Protect their hair • Clip or pin back any hair that could get in the way.
Put them at ease • Talk to the client before and during the make-up session to help keep them relaxed.
• Explain how the make-up will be applied and removed.
Get feedback • Give them ample opportunity to ask questions about anything they are unsure of.
Show sensitivity • Be sensitive to any issues or concerns they might have about being made up, such as contra-indications, allergies or image.
Be confident and professional • Present as a confident and professional make-up specialist as this will help put clients at ease.
Learning activity A2.1
Develop a checklist of the main things you need to consider when you are preparing a client for the make-up service.
Personal presentation and organisation is also important in preparing for the make-up service. Creating a professional image will re-assure clients of your ability to provide a quality make-up service.
Learning activity A2.2
Check the health and hygiene regulations in your country. What are the key health and hygiene procedures that relate to the application of make-up? Focus on areas such as client and equipment preparation.
Assess client’s skin type and condition
An essential requirement in preparing your client for the make-up application service is to carry out a skin analysis. To do this effectively you will need to be able to recognise the various skin types and conditions and their features. This will influence product selection and may influence techniques applied to best enhance a client’s features. Your client’s face is the centre of attention and will be photographed so your analysis must be accurate to achieve the best photographic results. A client may have dry skin, oily or combination skin. Their skin may be sensitive to certain products and conditions.
They may have mature or aged skin with wrinkles and laugh lines. As people get older the muscles in the face sag and the skin falls away from the face and becomes thinner. Their skin may be pigmented or patchy. Skin tone, texture and colour will vary considerably from one client to the next, depending on such factors as age, ethnic background, occupation, exposure to sunlight and skin condition.
Skin colour generally refers to the lightness or darkness of the skin. Tone of skin refers to the normal firmness or functioning of the skin tissue, its tension or resistance to the passive stretching of resting muscle. This is also called elasticity. The skin’s elasticity is affected as well by the underlying muscle tone. Skin texture refers to the tactile quality or appearance of the facial tissue. Below is a description of the main skin types and conditions and their features.
Skin type or condition Description
Normal Very rare, free from blemishes, fine texture and smooth touch.
Dry Lacks natural oil (sebum) due to wind, sun, soaps, diet, age or harsh treatment. Tight closed pores, feels taut with dry and flaking patches.
Dehydrated Lacks moisture or water, similar to dry skin. Prone to fine lines and wrinkles.
Oily Too much sebum due to hormone imbalance, diet or climate. Appears shiny, even over foundation. Thick and coarse in texture with open pores and is prone to pimples.
Combination Very common, dry to normal at sides of face. Oily or greasy T-zone (centre panel, of the face consisting of forehead, nose and chin).
Sensitive Found on any of the above skin types, especially dry skin which reacts to cosmetic products and touch. Redness, blotches and prone to dilated capillaries.
Mature Loss of muscle tone, crepey, loose skin, lines and wrinkles formed from repeated habitual expressions.
Congested Affects areas where sebaceous gland activity is highest, can only be caused by dehydration.
Acne Excessive production of oil or seborrhoea. Redness, irritation and thickened skin.
Sun damaged Thickened loose dry skin.
Couperose Visible capillaries which feels tight and irritated, may have dry areas.
Sample client record card
Client name SKIN ASSESSMENT
(tick appropriate box)
o young o combination o oily
o blemished o sensitive o normal
o dry o dehydrated o lifeless
o mature o couperose o prematurely aged
o general o localised area o temporary
o allergies o drug allergies
o cause known o condition known
o existing couperose
o fine o normal o heavy o open pores
o coarse o scarred
Special comments and requests
Camouflage / correction required Technique Products/equipment PRICE
Cleansing the skin
Cleansing is an essential requirement as it prepares the skin for the make-up service. Cleansing a client’s skin before applying make-up is required to get rid of dirt and oil. There are many cleansing products available and correctly identifying the correct ones for each client is essential. Following the assessment of the client’s skin and its condition, you need to choose the most suitable cleansing products. If their skin is patchy or combination, or if contra indications have been identified, you will most likely choose different cleansing products for different areas of skin to be made-up.
You need to read instructions carefully with regard to directions concerning the use of cleansing products for different areas of the face, especially around the eyes. Some products may contain ingredients that may be harmful to certain skin types. The foaming agents, sodium lauryl sulphate, ammonium laureth sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) are the most widely used chemicals in cosmetics and cleansers. They have been linked to severe skin irritation, eczema, skin reddening and serious eye damage. Carefully read the instructions on all cleansing products and identify their specific uses and application directions.
Section B Analyse the face
What you will cover in this section
The two steps to Analyse the face are:
Step 1 Identifying facial shapes
Step 2 Assessing requirements for facial areas
This section covers the make-up principles that apply to different facial shapes in relation to highlighting and shading to achieve specific photographic requirements. This includes identifying areas for camouflage and corrective make-up so that you can design a make-up plan to meet the client’s requirements.
Step 1 Identifying facial shapes
Faces come in a variety of shapes and sizes and will influence how make-up is applied. The same make-up will achieve a different effect on varying facial shapes. Different facial shapes include:
• heart shaped
Facial shape generally refers to the shape of the face area framed by the hairline. For example, a square shaped face will appear to have the same length across the forehead and jaw line and straight lateral contours of the face. A triangular face will appear to have a broad forehead, tapering down to a narrow chin.
It is also possible to identify bone size and structure, such as:
• high or low cheek bones.
To further analyse the correct shape and features of the face, balance, proportion and their relationship to each other should be considered.
Balance may refer to the size and shape of the features of a face. For example, are the client’s eyes and eyebrows different sizes or shapes or is one eye higher than the other?
Proportion relates to whether or not the client’s features are too big or too small for the size and shape of the face. For example, does the client have a small nose and a large face?
Use different sources of information to find out about the features of different facial shapes and procedures for facial analysis.
Learning activity B1.1
Collect a series of photographs from fashion magazines and journals that feature a range of facial shapes. It is a good idea to look at make-up or other magazines that feature mainly faces.
Select three pictures featuring different facial shapes that you can easily identify. Choose pictures that are well lit where the faces are directed straight out to the camera and where there is enough light and dark contrast to clearly outline the shape of the face. Carry out a facial analysis for your selection of photographs.
Photo Facial shape Reasons
Step 2 Assessing make-up requirements for facial areas
The look of the face and head is determined by the anatomy of the skull with its raised and indented features. Good facial make-up is about recognising the features of facial and neck muscles and how they appear under different lighting conditions. Facial shape includes the bone structures that form the face, the eyebrow arch, the jaw line and upper mouth, the temples and cheekbones.
Identify corrective and camouflage make-up areas
A client may have areas of their face and skin that need to be camouflaged or corrected with make-up products. They may have scars, bruises, mild sunburn, freckled or blemished skin. They will probably not want these to be noticeable in the final photo. They may also want to enhance or reduce the appearance of certain facial features. You need to know what products and techniques to use to enhance or camouflage these areas so that the best photographic outcome can be achieved.
Shaders may be used to camouflage a number of facial features, for example, to reduce a double chin, to enhance cheekbones or to make a nose appear shorter, straighter or narrower. They can also be used to enlarge or reduce a forehead or to soften a jaw line.
Concealers are applied either under or over the base, depending on the photographic requirements, time available and client needs. Concealers are used to cover or hide circles under the eyes, skin blemishes, heavy beard growth, skin discolouration and scars. Mascara may be used to tame eyebrows.
An illusion of depth and definition is created when a darker colour than the base make-up is applied over the base shade. Usually in corrective make-up, shadows are about three shades darker than the base, except in making up the nose, which may require stronger contrasts to achieve the desired effect. This is evident particularly when using shadows to counteract strong natural highlights. You should use shades with natural tones, such as browns, peaches and caramels. These colours are found naturally in the skin. The usual areas to be deepened are the eye sockets, the sides of the nose (for thinning), cheeks (for shallowing) and flesh under the chin (to minimise heaviness). The darker the colour, the deeper the contour will look.
A highlight is a base make-up that is at least two shades lighter than the base. The usual areas highlight is applied to the bridge of the nose, cheekbones and areas under the eyes and below the brows. Highlights are blended thoroughly before applying any shadows. Applying frost to features makes them look much fuller. Light reflects off the frosting, bringing the features forward.
Highlights and shadows should be applied to an area slightly smaller than the final size of the desired effect to allow for the spreading that results from blending.
It is important to choose a shade of concealer that is a couple of shades lighter than the skin, for example, an orangey yellow shade for lightly tanned skin. Concealer is more opaque and longer lasting than foundation and can be used to cover broken blood vessels, redness around the nose and blotchiness anywhere on the face. Stick form concealer is the least oily and easiest to apply.
The table below contains information about how a variety of make-up products can be used to camouflage, highlight and shade problem areas of the face. Understanding these techniques is essential if you are to apply make-up for a range of photographic purposes.
Problem Product Application
Problematic skin Concealer Use on problem area of face and light powder over the top.
Blueness under the eyes Concealer Apply in light tapping motions, extending up to lower lashes. Blot with a tissue to remove oil and leave only the pigment.
Dark circles under the eyes Highlighter Before applying base make-up, apply a touch of highlight a few shades lighter than the base foundation.
A touch of red added to the foundation can provide additional help and eliminate any unwanted greyish discoloration.
Uneven skin tone or blotchiness Foundation Apply lightly and blend with skin colour.
Heavy beard lines Foundation Mix a small amount of red into a light base colour. Apply it to the beard shadow, powdered, and stipple the normal base make-up colour over it.
Alternately, a quick technique is to cover heavy beard lines with a pressed powdered make-up that has a slightly warm tone.
Tip: For people with brown complexions use an under base that contains yellow instead of white.
Prominent forehead Shadow Darken the area next to the hairline with a foundation colour about three shades darker than the rest of the face. Blend the colour downward very gradually so that it disappears imperceptibly into the foundation, to make the forehead appear lower.
To make the forehead seem narrower, shadow the temples and blend the shadow onto the front plane of the forehead.
Receding temples Highlight Highlight the temples, carrying the highlight into the hairline. This will counteract the natural shadow that results from the receding temples and appear to bring them forward. It will also seem to extend the front lane of the forehead horizontally.
Undefined eyebrow shape White pencil or concealer Use a white pencil or concealer with a little white shadow on it to white out eyebrow hairs and reveal exact shape the brow will take.
Unwanted grey hair Hair colouring stick To camouflage grey hair at the hairline, temples, sideburns, apply brown or black hair colouring stick using an eyebrow brush as an applicator. Make sure not to touch up the skin. Let dry and comb then wash out with soap and water after the photography.
Receding hairline Eyebrow pencil Using a very sharp eyebrow pencil, carefully draw individual lines alongside the thin hairs at the hairline to make hair appear thicker. Do not smear the lines. Do not use a greasy pencil that will shine and smear.
Light eyebrows Eyebrow pencil Apply eyebrow pencil in light touches on the eyebrow hairs (not the skin) to make the brows darker and fuller. Be careful to maintain a natural look.
Thin eyebrows Eyebrow pencil or lead pencil Use a very sharp, soft lead pencil or eyebrow pencil and feather strokes to create brow definition. Be sure to use short light strokes following the direction of the hairs.
Do not draw a hard line along eyebrow.
Narrow space between the eyebrow and the eye Eyebrow pencil Brush the eyebrow hair upwards and reshape the outer end of the eyebrow slightly with a pencil. Then, using eyeliner, brush and dark brown (near black) powder, run the colour in almost a straight line from inner to outer corner of the eye. Blend eyeliner into lash line.
Small eyes Shadow Shade the eye, blending a slightly dark colour into the crease of the eyes with a narrow sponge tip applicator. Apply eyeliner and extend the brow with eyebrow pencil, to make the eye appear larger.
Round cheeks Base If cheeks are too round, shade the part of the cheek to be made less prominent, with a base of two to three shades darker than that used on the rest of the face.
Blend this lowlight into the lighter base.
Sunken cheeks Base Apply a base a few shades lighter than the rest of the face to counteract the natural shadows.
Blend into the base.
Wide nose Shading colours Apply shading colours a few shades darker than the foundation on either side of the nose and to the nostrils. Then blend the edges.
Do not add additional highlight in the centre. The shading creates a thinning effect naturally.
Nose too prominent Highlight/
shadow To flatten the nose, shadow the front and highlight the sides. Blend all edges carefully.
To reduce fullness in the tip of the nose, shadow it slightly on either side of the painted highlight, to tone down part of the natural highlight.
Slightly crooked nose Shading colours Run a fairly narrow highlight down the nose.
Then apply shading colours a few shades darker than the foundation on either side wherever there is a natural highlight that reveals the crookedness.
Blend the highlight and the shadows. The highlight may be straight or may bend slightly in the opposite direction from the real bend in the nose.
A little additional highlight might be required in the right place to correct a crooked nose.
Nose too long Shadow To make the nose shorter, apply a deeper colour under the tip and blend it up over the tip to tone down the natural highlight.
Highlight the upper part of the nose to attract the eye to that area and help further to give the impression of a shorter nose.
Nose too short Highlight To lengthen the nose, apply highlight down over and under the tip.
Dry lips Petroleum jelly/lip balm If lips are dry, apply petroleum jelly then buff with a baby’s toothbrush to get rid of dry skin and smooth with lip balm before applying lip liner or lipstick.
Thin lips Lip pencil Outline the new lip line with a lip pencil in the shade closest to the natural lip colour or to lipstick shade, if applying lipstick colour. Then using the matching lipstick shade, fill in the rest.
Tip: It is usually best to make the lower lip lighter than the upper.
Lips too full Foundation and lip colour Minimise fullness by covering the lips with the foundation then apply the lip colour only toward the inside of the lips. Fade it outwards into the foundation colour.
Tip: Avoid deep colours.
Lips too wide Foundation and lip colour Apply lip colour toward the centre of the lips. Cover the outer corners with the foundation colour.
Tip: The upper lip may be left slightly wider than the lower.
Mouth too narrow Lip colour Carry the lip colour out to the extreme corners, particularly on the upper lip. Take care not to carry the colour beyond the natural corners of the mouth.
Turned-down mouth Lip colour Where there is a heavy upper lip and a thin lower one, fill in the lower lip to match the upper one and, if possible, turn up the corners with lip colour.
Define the lips by outlining them with a brush, using a darker shade of red.
Apply the lip colour with a narrow flat brush and blend with outline. Blot with a tissue.
Alternately, partially block out the upper lip with foundation colour and fill in the lower lip to match.
Receding chin Highlighter Apply a touch of highlight to the whole chin and blend at the edge into the foundation to give a more pronounced impression.
Prominent chin Shadow If the chin juts forward too much, darken the whole chin with a light shadow.
If it is too long in proportion to the rest of the face, shorten by shadowing the lower part. Make sure that the edge of the shadow is thoroughly blended.
Wrinkles, age lines Highlighter Before powdering the face, brush in highlights in the deep crevices around the mouth, forehead and nose, where there are natural shadows. Then, subtly shadow the prominent part of each wrinkle where there is a natural highlight.
Sagging neckline Shadow Apply shadow just under the jaw line and blend gradually into the foundation. Define the jaw line with shadow but make sure the neck shadow does not come up over the jaw line.
Section C Analyse the context
What you will cover in this section
The two steps to Analyse the context are:
Step 1 Determining the photographic context
Step 2 Identifying the relationship of photographic procedures and techniques to make-up design
This section covers how to identify and achieve different photographic contexts or looks in relation to make-up design. It also covers how different photographic practices and requirements such as lighting, photographic techniques, time of day, location and type of event all play a part in determining make-up design and application.
Step 1 Determining the photographic context
In most situations, the client will have a lot of say in how they want to look. It is your job to interpret their requirements into an actual make-up plan to create the desired effect. In other situations, the photographer, wardrobe designer or others will have a say in the make-up look. You will need to bring all these ideas together so that everyone’s make-up expectations are met.
The following table provides examples of looks or images, which can be created for photography.
The look Make-up application
Youthful • A good deal of colour in the face.
• A delicately curved mouth.
• Smooth brows following the shape of the eye.
Natural 'no make-up' look • Even out the skin colour with a very light foundation.
• Use concealer to cover darker skin under the eyes.
• Lighten the bridge of the nose and area around the mouth with a highlighter.
Dramatic, smoky eyes • Apply dark colour – possibly black – in the eye creases and along the lashes. Then shade outward in gradations of black or grey.
Sophisticated (sultry) look • Keep the eyelid and brow bone pale.
• Line the inside of the eye with a black eyeliner pencil and smudge into lashes for a smoky effect.
• Use a pale lipstick shade, such as a pinkish beige, to create impact.
• Mix lip pencil and lipstick together to get creamy pale finish.
• Line the lips in slightly darker shade of pinky beige then smudge into the rest of the lip before filling in.
Natural look for evening • Focus on the eyes, and deepen the lip colour.
• Face: Apply concealer where needed. Intensify blush from daytime by sweeping two coats of a neutral shade on the cheeks and in the T-zone area.
• Eyes: Brush the brows. Apply moss-green shadow along the lashes as eyeliner. Next, apply brown shadow to the lids. (Applying a shadow that's a shade darker than the client’s skin always gives depth to the eyes.)
• Lips: Apply lipstick that is a shade deeper than the lip shade, and cover with gloss.
Classic look for evening • Face: Apply a translucent foundation all over. Next, apply translucent powder. (No need for blush because of red lipstick, and you don't want too much red on the face.)
• Eyes: Add a few discreet individual false eyelashes to the outer corners of the eyes. Apply a nude eye-shadow powder to lids up to brow bone. Brush the brows and fill them in lightly with a brow pencil. Apply mascara to lashes.
• Lips: Apply a classic red lipstick. To make it last longer, fill in lips with a matching lip pencil first.
Romantic for evening • Face: Apply sheer foundation all over the face. Blend cream blush into cheeks. Next, apply translucent powder all over the face.
• Eyes: Curl lashes, or apply dramatic spidery false eyelashes. Apply auburn shadow as liner along lashes. Allow them to smudge slightly for a soft, romantic look. Apply an iridescent, white powder shadow to the lids up to the brow bone.
• Lips: Apply gold lipstick over entire mouth. Next, add a red lip stain pressed into the centre of the lips.
Bridal • Foundation: If client is wearing strapless dress select colour that is same as the upper body. A darker foundation will be obvious in photos.
• Eyes: Use base colour that has a slight sheen. Frosted eye shadows can reflect the flash in photos.
• Blush: Avoid blue/pink because it can look cold in photos. Pale peach does not show up well in black and white photos.
Learning activity C1.1
Find out what looks or for what occasions most clients request photographic make-up at your workplace and list your main considerations when applying this make-up for photographic purposes. Considerations might include:
• the general mood or feeling that the make-up is intended to create
• background colours
• creating highlights and shadows
• other features such as eyebrows, facial hair.
List key considerations in the application of the make-up below.
Step 2 Identifying the relationship of photographic procedures and techniques to make-up design
You need to familiarise yourself with a large range of photographic procedures and techniques and how they relate to make-up design. Lighting, reflectors, cameras, film stock, shutter speed, focus and printing processes all have an impact on the look, feel and quality of the image produced.
In the photographic studio or salon, most make-up is seen under artificial lighting. In outdoor locations during daylight hours, there is much more reliance on natural lighting. The make-up and lighting must work together for a successful effect.
Here are some of the main points to consider about lighting and its effects on make-up.
• Daylight is the clearest but most revealing of lighting conditions. The colour blue dominates.
• Filament bulbs produce a warm, yellow/orange light.
• Fluorescent globes produce a cold, blue/green light.
• Spotlights produce a blue/white light, which makes everything appear pale.
• Halogen bulbs produce a very white light, bleaching out colours.
• Different intensities of light can cause make-up to fade, darken or change colour.
• The use of different filters and reflectors also alter the lighting effect.
• The direction of the light source also creates different effects on the make-up design. Lighting from above, from ground level, from the sides and any combination of these as well as backlighting, all create completely different effects by highlighting and shadowing different parts of the bone structure.
• The distance of the light source from the client also has an impact on the make-up design.
• Colour application (base, highlight and contrast colour areas) Were specific colours used to enhance photographic outcomes?
• Texture: frosted or sheen products?
• Detailed eye and lip make-up
• Photographic factors such as lighting.
Make-up suggestions Photographic considerations
Photo 1 Context
There is an enormous difference between photography in an outdoor setting using daylight and photography indoors, using studio lights. The human eye adapts to the colour of the lighting. For example, daylight is predominantly blue light.
As well, in an outdoor setting, in the early morning or evening, the intensity of light shifts quite rapidly. If you have ever taken snaps at the same location in the morning, at noon and in the afternoon, you will notice the changing feel of each picture. Large areas of open sky and water will also add reflected light to the picture. A predominance of brown in an outdoor environment can create a harmonic and neutralising effect.
When there is too much light, the photographer will use a smaller aperture or faster shutter speed. The smaller the aperture, the darker the skin tones and background colour appears. As a result there is a loss of detail in the shadows. Soft indirect light creates a nice quality for beauty shots. With soft light, the colours of the face and skin appear softer.
With direct hard lighting, the colour saturation intensifies, edges become more defined and the subject stands out more from the background. This has an important effect on the application of make-up.
There are generally three standard light colour temperatures used by photographers:
• 5500K which is equivalent to daylight.
• 3200K and 3400K colour temperature standard.
• A tungsten halogen unfiltered light will produce a natural tone. By comparison a 10,000K light has a great deal of blue in it and at the other end of the scale, a 2000K light tends towards the red-yellow.
Apart from daylight, the photographer will use one or a combination of the following light sources.
Illuminates the background rather than the person being photographed and separates their head and body from the background. It provides a degree of tonal separation between the subject and the background. It can also add depth to a portrait by creating a 'glow' effect. When coloured filters are used, background light can also add colour to portraits. For background lighting for a head and shoulders portrait, the usual procedure is to place a light on the floor and aim it upwards to lighten the background.
Used to illuminate the edges of a subject.
Used to separate dark hair from a dark background or to brighten a photograph, even when the hair is blonde. Outdoors, the sun can be used as a hair light.
Low key lighting
Uses more side and backlighting for serious or sombre, formal or dignified photographic images.
High key lighting
This lighting has many white and grey tones and uses a great deal of front lighting. The look created is light and bright, youthful and open.
In a make-up plan, the colour applied is not necessarily how it comes out. It is dependent on how the pigments react with other pigments, with skin and the lights. The best way to get an accurate record of make-up design and to check how it appears under light is to use an instamatic or digital camera and take stills in the precise lighting conditions for the shoot.
Absorption and reflection
When light hits an object, it is absorbed or reflected. The most highly absorbing colour is black. It is also the most difficult to photograph. A black background will detract from the subject.
Reflected light will cause glare. A polarising filter is used to block light in one direction and reduce the glare. Using a reflector is the simplest means of brightening dark shadows. In head shots, the light from the main light is bounced off a reflector card to the face of the client to fill in some of the shadows. A reflector will illuminate them most, when it faces an angle between them and the main light. The closer the reflector to the client’s face, the brighter the fill light will be.
Coloured reflectors are used to add or subtract colour, as in the following examples.
Outdoor daylight portrait
The sun is the main light source and without reflectors the open sky is the fill.
Blue sky adds blue colour to the shadow. A gold reflector is used to warm the shadow, eliminate the blue and produce a more neutral colour. The blue light picks up the pink tones in the skin and creates a natural look.
To create a studio portrait to resemble daylight, a very pale blue reflector is used to cool the shadow colour enough to look more like an outdoor photo.
Impact of lighting on make-up
It is essential to be familiar with the general effects of certain colours and types of light on certain colours of make-up.
Generally the following principles apply.
• Colour value is the darkness or lightness of a colour in relation to other colours. Light colours have high value and dark colours have low value. Colours of low value will have a maximum effect upon make-up and colours of high value, a minimum effect.
• A given colour of light will cause a similar colour of pigment to become higher in intensity, whereas a complementary colour of pigment will be lower in both value and intensity.
• The darker the colour medium, the stronger the effect upon the make-up.
• Side lighting may wash out features on one side of the face and place the other side in shadow - this can add mystery and sensuality to a photo.
• Lighting from below produces an effect of unnatural shadows. If the primary source of light is to be from below rather than from above, the make-up should be done, or at least looked at, with light coming from below so any adjustments can be made.
• Overhead lighting creates unflattering shadows in the eye, nose and mouth areas
• Any colour of pigment will appear grey or black if it does not contain any of the colours composing a given ray of light that falls upon it.
To accurately observe the impact of lighting, try to apply the make-up under lighting similar to that under which it will be photographed.
The following table outlines the effects of particular lighting shades on make-up colours.
Lighting shade Effect on make-up colour
Pink • Tends to grey the cool colours and intensify the warm ones.
• Yellow becomes more orange.
Flesh pink • Affects make-up less strongly than the deeper shades.
• Has a flattering effect on most make-ups.
Fire red • Will ruin nearly any make-up.
• All but the darker flesh tones virtually disappear.
• Light and medium blusher become a pale orange and fade imperceptibly into the foundation.
• Dark reds turn a reddish brown.
• Yellow becomes orange.
• Cool shading colours become shades of grey and black.
• Deep green turns to a yellowish tone and natural foundation becomes pale orange.
Amber and orange • A similar effect to red but less severe.
• Blusher turns orange or fades away completely.
• Brown takes on a darker tone.
• Blue turns green.
• Deep green changes to light brown.
• Blue grey turns to deep slate.
• Natural foundation appears pasty.
Bastard amber • One of the most flattering colours to make-up.
• It picks up warm pinks and flesh tones and adds life to make-up.
• It may grey the cool shading colours.
Light straw • Very little effect on make-up, except to make colours somewhat warmer.
• Cool colours may be greyed a little.
Lemon and yellow • Make warm colours more yellow, blues more green and violets somewhat grey.
Green • Greys all flesh tones and blusher, in proportion to its intensity.
• Violet also turns grey.
• Yellow and blue become greener.
• Green is intensified.
• Red turns brown.
• Brown becomes black.
• Light and dark foundations become greenish.
Light blue-green • Lowers the intensity of the foundation colours.
• Light red becomes darker.
• Dark red becomes brown.
• Greys medium and deep flesh tones as well as reds.
• Washes out pale flesh tones.
• Use very little blusher under blue-green light.
Blue • Greys mostly flesh tones and causes them to appear more red or purple.
• Pale blusher turns to dark violet.
• Dark blusher turns into black violet and at times, depending on its tone, it can even turn to dirty spots on the cheeks.
• Lipstick turns to black.
• Natural foundations generally turn purple.
• Blues and greens become higher in value.
• Violets become bluer.
• Purples become more violet.
• The darker the blue, the stronger the effect.
Violet • Causes orange, flame, and scarlet to become more red.
• Blusher may seem more intense.
• Be careful not to use too intense a red in either foundation or blusher.
Purple • Has an effect similar to that of violet, except that the reds and oranges are intensified to a much greater degree.
• Most blues will tend to look violet.
Direction of light
Strong direct light results in strong highlight and a gradual diminution of light from the highlight to the darkest part of the lowlight on the opposite side to it. No matter from which direction the light is coming, it will cause a highlight upon the part of the face closest to it and leave a lowlight on the opposite side. There can be no shadow or lowlights without a corresponding highlight.
With distance, both black-and-white become more grey, that is, less strongly differentiated. Near edges are made to appear closer by intensification of their colour, no matter what the hue and value may be. Far edges are made to recede by means of a decrease in colour intensity and centralisation of colour value.
Unidirectional light not only leaves part of the face itself in shadow but also casts a shadow on any area around it from which the light is cut off. A cast shadow always has a hard edge. It follows the shape of the face and is darkest at the outer edge.
Learning activity C2.2
We see all objects three-dimensionally because of light, shade, highlight and shadow. Examine your face from all angles and you will see each section, depending on how your muscle and bone structures are constructed – round or flat, with hard or soft edges, forming wrinkles, nasolabial folds, cheeks, crow’s feet and frown lines.
Place a spotlight in front of you. Look in the mirror with the spotlight placed in front so the light is not blinding. You will not find much detail in your face. Move the light under your chin and you will see your muscle and bone structures in an unnatural form. Now hold the light on top of your head and you will see your face more or less as we see it during the middle of the day.
Use the following table to make some notes on the effects created.
Front Below Overhead
What do you think this means for make-up application?
Learning activity C2.3
Look at three modelling photographs (by searching for modelling photographs on the internet or by browsing a magazine) which use different types of light and lighting sources are being used, both indoor and outdoor locations and at different times of day. For each session make some notes on the following:
• make-up colours used and why
• lighting shade and source.
How does the lighting complement the make-up design?
Think about how you would interpret the word 'dramatic' into make-up design. Now think about how the make-up design will be affected by lighting and photographic procedures. Typical lighting to create a dramatic effect would use photoflood bulbs plus side lighting for dramatic effect. Side lighting or non-diffused strobe lighting fitted with a reflector reduces shadow contrast and separates the subject from the background.
Photographic procedures and make-up application vary depending on the type or purpose of the shot. It is important that you discuss the look, composition, lighting and photographic procedures with the photographer and/or client at the initial consultation to get a sense of the type of shot they are creating the make-up design for. The following are examples of specific types of photos or contexts.
Type of shot Lighting/composition Make-up
Commercial headshot in an outdoor setting Maximise natural lighting to capture an ‘outdoor’ feel. Rely on sun to provide illumination. Minimal make-up and pastel colours.
Legit studio headshot Focussed key light. Less bright than in outdoor shot. Slightly softer back light. Less fill or reflected light on the client’s face results in less contrast between the client and the background. Apply make-up design for a glamorous look, a shade darker than for an outdoor shoot.
Professional Subdued lighting. Very basic lighting pattern. No excessive backlights or hair lights. A straight on personable shot. Minimal make-up to give natural look.
Outdoor look (shot indoors) Studio lighting to capture sense of sun, sky and freshness. Photographed against a light background. Medium tone powder base and deep pink blusher to create an outdoor glow.
Glamour headshot Dramatic lighting creating an ‘in the spotlight' feeling. Soft focus to achieve a ‘star in the eyes’ effect. Hair illuminated with strong, hot backlight. Apply make-up design for a glamorous look, with a touch of dramatic contrast.
Friendly middle-aged woman Softly diffused key light (650 watt scoop). Soft backlight on hair. Reflector for fill. Grey background. Apply light make-up using colours complementary to skin tone.
Executive shot 650 watt scoop light in front of the client and slightly to their right. This light is bounced off a tilted reflector in front of the client, slightly to their left.
A 150 watt spotlight is aimed at an unobtrusive textured background. Apply make-up design for a natural ‘no make-up’ look.
Make-up for black-and-white film
Panchromatic (Pan) film is principally used in black-and-white photography. A panchromatic conversion glass will help you translate colours into the grey scale.
A typical photographic set up for black-and-white head shots uses a tungsten 400 ISO fine grained black-and-white film, an aperture of f5.6, shutter speed of 1/15sec and a 500 watt lamp.
Historically, Lovibond tintometer determination was employed to carefully design the shades of make-up that would translate into comparative natural skin tones in a black-and-white medium. Panchromatic or black-and-white make-up up typically ranges from Pan 21 to 31. Pan 25 and 26 became the women’s shades and Pan 28 and 29 were used for men, with a shade three numbers below the base shade. For example, Pan 22 for women, employed to create highlights that would photograph three shades lighter on the grey scale. A shade three numbers above, for example, Pan 28, appears as a shading that photographs the shades darker on the grey scale.
When choosing a skin base, you should select a base for men that is two or three shades darker than that for women. This also depends on the darkness of light of the background.
The shadow colour for black-and-white needs to be a tone about three shades darker and for highlight, a tone about three shades lighter than the base colour.
Shades such as ivory, beige, peach, natural, rose and suntan do not lend themselves to the black-and-white medium. Nor does a gold tooth! A gold tooth appears black on black and white film. However it is not something you can do anything about. In exceptional circumstances, an enamel can be applied to cover a gold tooth. There are hygiene issues associated with putting your fingers in a client’s mouth.
Make-up for colour film
In colour, the principles used for black-and-white film become ineffective and basically incorrect. Colour film is extremely sensitive to nuances in the tonal values of foundations, lip colours, cheek colours and so forth. The three shades lighter for highlights and three shades darker for shading principles are effective only for black-and-white. Street make-up on the other hand has always been a colour medium.
Previously, there were essentially four different foundation systems, each designed for its own medium. Now there is only one basic series of pink-beige to ruddy. Natural tan that is very natural looking is necessary for most professional use.
Skin tone can be divided into light, medium and deep plus the value of the undertone colour. This rating is used to define true skin tone. Skin tones varying from pink to ruddy to olive and olive-brown undertone value require light make-up shades. Skin with yellowish undertone value requires medium make-up shades. Skin with grey undertone requires deep make-up shades. Pinkish areas of skin can be corrected with beige tones and sallow skins can be heightened with pink foundations.
A greater issue for make-up artists is when the colour photograph is then printed in black-and-white. It is important that you have a good understanding of the grey scale and what colour film does in relation to contrast. Colour is graded to grey. Generally, 18% grey is an ideal between black-and-white. When a colour negative is developed into black-and-white the contrast increases. Therefore, the make-up needs to be more subtle so the contrast does not show up.
Type of film
You should be familiar with the type of film photographers use for fashion and beauty shots and the effects each type of film creates. Kodachrome 64 for example, creates more contrast than Kodachrome 25. Typically 85mm or 135mm film are used for face and head shots.
Using a slower, finer grained film, the image quality improves. Kodak Panatomic X with a rating of 32ISO is ideal for black-and-white photography in studio settings. It is an exceptionally slow film that reduces the harsh grain in a photograph.
In a photograph taken with 35mm film up-rated from 400 ISO to 1600 ISO, the grain in the image appears to increase. As a consequence, the contrast is reduced and results in comfortable pastel shades.
Learning activity C2.4
Talk to a photographer, stylist, beauty operator, or colleague to find out about how different photographic techniques determine make-up design and choice of products and colours.
Make brief notes for each of the following techniques.
Black-and-white versus colour reproduction
Different film stocks, exposure speeds
Any special effects
Learning activity C2.5
Collect a range of black-and-white and colour photos that clearly demonstrate the effects described earlier in this section.
Look carefully at each photo to determine:
• context created
• the lighting used
• the make-up effects
• make-up products and colours.
Time of day and location
In order to design a make-up plan, it is important that you know under what conditions the make-up is expected to last. For example, indoor salon, outdoor location, time of day and weather conditions. You may not always know all of these factors but it is important that you gather as much information as possible to assist in creating an appropriate make-up plan.
Type of context
In the initial consultation it is important for you to establish the context for which you need to design the make-up. The type of context or image you design must be directly related to the actual type of event for which the make-up is being designed. It may be for business, pleasure, social, wedding, a special occasion, fashion or catwalk photography. All require different make-up approaches.
Learning activity C2.5
List some of the make-up photographic contexts in your workplace for which clients require make-up. Make a list of all the points you need to consider in developing a make-up plan for each of the contexts or events identified. An example of a context has been provided for you.
Context Points to consider
Make-up for the bride
Section D Apply the make-up
What you will cover in this section
The three steps to Apply the make-up are:
Step 1 Selecting a make-up plan
Step 2 Selecting make-up products
Step 3 Applying make-up products
This section covers developing a detailed make-up plan for a client. It assists you to identify a range of make-up products and equipment and procedures for their use and application.
Step 1 Selecting a make-up plan
Once you have gathered all the information required at the initial consultation, you will need to select an appropriate make-up plan.
Think carefully about the key requirements and how to interpret them. For example, the make-up plan may require ‘light, natural make-up’ for a specific context. Make-up descriptions such as this can be interpreted in several ways. Some examples follow.
If it is for someone who is not used to make-up, such as a male executive sitting for professional business photographs, he will probably want to look clean and neat with a healthy glow.
If it is for a catwalk fashion parade, it will depend on a whole range of factors, including the type of fashion event, fashion designs, lighting and location.
The make-up plan shows the client, photographer and others what you have in mind, before you do it.
Listed below are some general guidelines for the steps in developing the plan.
• Complete a simple drawing of the design.
• Describe the design in writing.
• Use a stock template or stencil of an average man or woman’s face or particular face shape to indicate how you intend to make-up the different parts of the face.
• Use a black and white photograph of the client’s face with a clear plastic overlay. Using brushes and paint, create the desired character by painting on the plastic. By placing a piece of white paper between the photograph and the painted plastic sheet, you will see the colour effect required.
• Use a combination of these methods.
Learning activity D1.1
Visit some workplaces where make-up services for photographic purposes are performed. Collect some samples of how make-up plans are designed and presented in these workplaces. Make some notes on the following:
• What information do the make-up plans contain?
• How is the selected design demonstrated to the client?
Learning activity D1.2
Use yourself or a friend to design a detailed make-up plan covering the following information. You may also like to use the facial diagrams to shade in the planned make-up effects.
• the context the client is planning for
• areas that need to be highlighted or shaded
• other make-up details
• lighting requirements to make the design work
• products and equipment to be used
• order of application
• an estimate of how long it will take to do the make-up.
Make a list or questions you can ask the client to collect the information you need.
Step 2 Selecting make-up products
A design may look great, but how practical is it? Does it match the time and resources allocated and the equipment and products available? These are important questions to consider.
It is important that you are familiar with the range of make-up products available and read all the product labels and manufacturers’ guidelines carefully for all the products used. Some products will be more suitable for photographic purposes than others. You also need to be aware of the chemicals in the products used, potential risks and possible allergic reactions.
It has been documented that a number of ingredients in lipstick products are potential carcinogens. Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) used in some creams sensitise the skin and make it thinner. Other effects can include redness and swelling (particularly around the eyes), rashes, burning and skin discolouration.
Eye make-up and eyelash dyes often include chemicals such as triethanolamine, hydrobenzoic acid and propylene glycol, which can cause severe allergic reactions. Phenylendiamine is a highly toxic substance linked with eczema and skin rashes, bronchial asthma and gastritis. It is also a known carcinogen and has been banned from use in cosmetic products in Europe.
Learning activity D2.1
Identify the most common types of make-up and what you need to consider when using this product for photographic purposes. List the products in the sequence in which you would apply them. The first one has been completed for you.
Product type Considerations for photographic purposes
The particular base applied in each case depends on the extent of coverage required for the context and the time and location of the photographic session. For example, on the catwalk, under stage lighting, in natural light, in a studio or in hot weather.
Make-up equipment includes the materials and tools you use to apply the products or to work with a client. Your equipment must be maintained and used according to the health and hygiene regulations. It is also important for beauty operators to always clean the work area and the equipment used, according to salon/store procedures.
Learning activity D2.2
Look at the following list of standard equipment items required to apply make-up for photography. For each piece of equipment note the health and hygiene regulations. Then note how the equipment is cleaned in your workplace.
Equipment Health and hygiene requirements Workplace procedures
If you are working in an outdoor location with an established make-up area, tables, chairs, mirrors and water may be available however, this will not always be the case. Below are some additional items which may be required when completing make-up on location:
• a table
• make-up chairs at correct height
• insect repellent
• face wipes
• suitable clothing depending on the location
• simple first aid materials such as band aids and antiseptic cream
• basic hygiene items such as toothbrush and toothpaste
• heat packs or ice packs for cooling or heating clients and make-up
• battery operated personal fan for clients in high temperatures
• towels, gowns and protective clothing.
Step 3 Applying make-up products
Health and safety
When applying make-up products you need to apply Health and Hygiene requirements to reduce the chances of any cross infection during contact with the client’s skin. You will also need to be aware of Occupational Health and Safety regulations and hazards especially if you are working outdoors or on location. A hazard is anything that can cause injury or illness. Below are some of the hazards you may encounter.
Health and safety hazard Control
• Infections can be airborne (flu and viruses), contact infections (skin/eye infections, bacterial or fungal) or blood borne (for example, Hepatitis B and HIV).
• Reduce the risk of infection by wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves.
• Be careful to not cross infect, for example wash your hands after blowing your nose.
• Decant make-up products and dispose of left-overs according to salon/store procedures and health and hygiene regulations
• Where possible, use single-use applicators to apply make-up products.
• Avoid contact with broken skin, lesions, sores or blood.
• Have plenty of brushes to use around the eyes and mouth to reduce the risk of cross infection or of transmitting infected material back to the make-up.
• Clean equipment after use following correct health and safety procedures.
• Use disposable supplies wherever possible.
• Dispose of any single-use items such as sponges and tissues, according to salon/store procedures and health and hygiene regulations.
• Keep used items separate from clean, unused equipment.
• Wash, disinfect and dry brushes, sponges and any other items you use.
Bending over or holding a bad posture for a long time • Seat the height of the client’s chair to allow you to work comfortably.
• Stretch carefully.
• Lift objects and carry gear correctly.
Applying make-up products
The order in which you apply products depends on the products you are using and the effect you want to create. It is important that you are familiar with the products and techniques you will be using and be able to explain these clearly to the client. You must be sensitive to any issues or concerns the client might have about being made up and be open to discussion or questions.
Listed below is the order in which products are generally applied. This order of steps is for the base make-up. Corrective make-up is usually applied after the base make-up. Note that the order for women and men is different.
Application of base make-up for women
• eye shadow
• powder eye shadow
• top/bottom eye lines
• socket shadows
• false lashes
• body make-up.
Application of base make-up for men
• skin tonic
• shading (optional)
• highlight (eyelids)
• bottom eye lines
• mascara (optional)
• lip colour
• facial hair (including tidying nose and ears)
• body make-up.