Recent Question/Assignment

? Textbook reference:
? Elias, J, P. (2016). Chapter 36: Nursing assessment and management of endocrine health. In. Koutoukidis, G, Stainton, K & Hughson, J., Tabbner’s nursing care. (7th ed.). Elsevier, China.
? Website reference:
? Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Diabetes. Retrieved from http://www.aihw.gov.au/diabetes/
? Diabetes Australia (2015). About Diabetes. Retrieved from https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/about-diabetes
? International Diabetes Federation. (2016). IDF online interactive modules. Retrieved from https://d-net.idf.org/en/component/content/article/9-uncategorised/35-welcome-to-the-idf-online-education-zone.html?Itemid=514
? National Diabetes Services Scheme. (2015). The NDSS. Retrieved from https://www.ndss.com.au/the-ndss
? National Association of Diabetes Centres. (n.d.). Home page. Retrieved from http://nadc.net.au/
? INFORMIT database

Essay topic
Write an essay on the topic diabetes mellitus. You must discuss the following in your essay.
• Introduction:
o Provide a definition of diabetes mellitus.
o Outline the significance of the topic in an Australian context.
o Introduce the main idea of your essay.
• Body of the essay/supporting paragraphs:
o Describe the anatomy and physiology related to the glucose metabolism and absorption in our body
? The role of the pancreas in glucose metabolism and absorption
? The roles of insulin and glucagon in maintaining the glucose level in our body.
o The pathophysiological changes occurring in type 1 diabetes and the resulting symptoms.
o The pathophysiological changes occurring in type 2 diabetes
o The pathophysiological changes occurring in gestational diabetes mellitus.
• Various problems that might occur when providing nursing care to a person with diabetes mellitus including an in-depth understanding of the following conditions:
o Hypoglycemia
o Hyperglycemia
o Ketoacidosis
o Hyper osmolar non-ketonic coma
o Diabetic retinopathy
o Infection
o Psychosocial issues
o Microvascular and macrovascular disease
(You must demonstrate an in-depth understanding of these conditions).
• Conclusion: Restate the main points of the essay.
Refer to the marking rubrics for further guidelines and marking criteria you must include in your essay.
Word limit: 1500 to 2000 words excluding references
Marking rubrics with benchmark answers:
* S – Satisfactory, NYS - Not yet satisfactory
Marking criteria Assessment outcome *
Used Harvard referencing style to support the content throughout the essay.
Content has been appropriately paraphrased and in-text citations provided. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed in the introduction the significance of the topic in an Australian context. 0 S 0 NYS
Introduced the topic providing a definition of diabetes mellitus 0 S 0 NYS
Introduced the main idea of the essay. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed:
• The role of the pancreas in glucose metabolism and absorption
• The roles of insulin and glucagon in maintaining the glucose level in our body. 0 S 0 NYS
Described the pathophysiological changes occurring in type 1 diabetes and the resulting symptoms. 0 S 0 NYS
Described the pathophysiological changes occurring in type 2 diabetes 0 S 0 NYS
Described the pathophysiological changes occurring in gestational diabetes mellitus. 0 S 0 NYS
Defined hypoglycemia. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed at least two (2) causes of hypoglycemia. 0 S 0 NYS
Described at least five (5) common symptoms of hypoglycemia. 0 S 0 NYS
Described what would happen if hypoglycemia has persisted. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed the recommended strategy if a nurse finds a hospitalised adult patient with symptoms of altered blood glucose but is unable to identify whether it is high or low. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed four (4) recommended strategies in managing a conscious adult patient with hypoglycemia. 0 S 0 NYS
Described the recommended management of hypoglycemia for a hospitalised, adult unconscious patient or a patient who is not alert or is unable to safely swallow. 0 S 0 NYS
Defined hyperglycemia. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed at least two (2) causes of hyperglycemia. 0 S 0 NYS
Described how stress could contribute to hyperglycemia in an adult patient with diabetes mellitus. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed at least five (5) major symptoms of hyperglycemia. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed the recommended nursing management of hyperglycemia for an adult hospitalised patient. 0 S 0 NYS
Defined diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). 0 S 0 NYS
Described the pathophysiological changes occurring in an adult patient with diabetes mellitus resulting in ketoacidosis. 0 S 0 NYS
Described the pathophysiology of Kussmaul’s respirations in an adult patient with diabetes mellitus. 0 S 0 NYS
Described the clinical presentation of an adult patient with DKA. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed the cause of dehydration in a patient with DKA. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed the cause of potassium imbalance in a patient with DKA. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed at least four (5) recommended strategies in managing hospitalised adult patients with DKA. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed the age group most affected by Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS). 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed how HHNS differs from DKA. 0 S 0 NYS
Described the clinical features that might lead to coma in patients presented with HHNS. 0 S 0 NYS
Defined diabetic retinopathy. 0 S 0 NYS
Described the pathophysiological changes occurring in the eye resulting in diabetic retinopathy. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed at least four (4) strategies patients with diabetes mellitus could implement to help reduce their chance of getting diabetic retinopathy. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed the reason for delayed healing in persons with diabetes mellitus. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed what happens to a diabetic person’s white blood cells (WBCs) in the presence of hyperglycemia. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed any four (4) common infections in a person with diabetes mellitus. 0 S 0 NYS
Described the possible psychological issues affecting persons diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed at least three (3) strategies you could implement when managing psychological issues in persons diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. 0 S 0 NYS
Discussed what nephropathy is. 0 S 0 NYS
Described the reasons for macrovascular complications such as strokes, heart attacks, and poor circulation in the feet and legs of persons with diabetes mellitus. 0 S 0 NYS
Appropriately concluded the essay. 0 S 0 NYS
Complied with the word limit of 1500-2000 words. 0 S 0 NYS
Provided a reference list in Harvard referencing style of not less than 10 references (published in or after 2013) including academic journals. 0 S 0 NYS

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