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Unit Assignment
Identification of homeostatic mechanisms and the construction of a Summary Concept Map
Unit Assignment
Identification of homeostatic mechanisms and the construction of a Summary Concept Map
Case study 1: Botulism has been allocated to those students with a family name starting from A through to those whose family name starts with H.
This assignment will involve describing the physiological mechanisms in place for a particular body system to maintain homeostasis of a particular factor such as blood calcium, fluid volume, blood pressure etc. While normal functioning should be the main focus of the assignment it should; however, include a brief description of how homeostasis is disrupted leading to the appearance of disease identified in topic provided. Please note, the disease process is a minor focus. The assignment will also require the construction of a concept map that summarizes how a physiological system maintains homeostasis normally and how it can be disrupted to cause disease.
Submit assignment as a Word document, however, if you intend to use Power Point to produce your concept map and paste it into your word document. In order to copy your concept map, while in PowerPoint you will need to ‘group’ (In format tab) the whole map together and then copy and paste it into your word file as a picture. The written section should be about 700 words (+/- 15%) excluding references.
Following the initial written section your concept map should identify the central physiological mechanism in the case. Ensure that the relationship between the components are clearly identified and how they maintain homeostasis. The factors disrupting homeostasis and therefore causing disease need to be positioned appropriately in the concept map.
Check the assignment rubric to ensure you have covered all the required aspects.
Once your assignment is complete the file should be submitted to Turn It In. Instructions regarding access to Turn It In can be found on BB under “My Assessments”.
Assignment Structure:
The Assignment will have the following sections:
Introduction: An introduction should briefly describe the body system associated with the topic and identify its general role briefly. This should be followed by an identification of the factor/s influenced by the body system (in relation to the question) and why they need to be kept within a homeostatic range. Lastly, briefly describe what factor/s in the case disrupt homeostasis to cause disease. (100 - 200 words)
Body: The body of your descriptive piece expands on what was identified in the introduction. The mechanisms used by the body system to maintain homeostasis of the factor identified should be described. An explanation of how factors identified in the question disrupt the homeostatic mechanisms to cause disease should be provided and conclude with what could be expected to occur with such disruption. A final sentence should indicate that the processes identified are summarized in the following concept map. (500 words)
Summary Concept Map: Explained in the following slides.
A note on referencing: Appropriate in text referencing should be used along with the provision of a reference list. It is expected that 3-5 citations would be appropriate and that they are relatively recent (within the last 6 years). You should make use of your text book as a significant reference. **Use at least one journal article and NO website references-they are not reliable sources**
Case studies:
Case study 1 (family name starting with A through to H): Botulism: Explain the role of the nervous system plays in muscular skeletal movement. Discuss the various components of the nervous system, the process of neural impulse transmission and neurotransmitters. Why could the bacteria Clostridium botulinum cause a descending paralysis?
Case study 2 (Family name I through to Z) Diabetes Insipidus: The hypothalamus plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Explain the mechanism by which the pituitary gland contributes to maintaining normal blood osmolality. Why might an individual with diabetes insipidus present with dehydration?
A diagrammatic summary of how we think and see relationships between bits of knowledge. Concept maps can produce an overall picture of their topic and how interacting sub-components contribute to the overall outcome.
The figure on the next slide from your text book is a concept map of how the body maintains glucose homeostasis. Glucose balance is at the center of the diagram with alterations in blood glucose above or below homeostatic levels stimulating physiological mechanisms to return levels to normal.
For example insulin is secreted when glucose levels rise leading to storage of glucose in the liver as glycogen and increased glucose entry into cells. The net result is a return of blood glucose levels towards normal. The various bits are linked by text to clarify their relationships.
The complexity of the concept map can easily be increased by introducing the membrane receptors on the tissues influenced by insulin therefore explaining the molecular activity of insulin. It is important to establish the level of detail that should be represented or required for your assignment.
While diagrams of the liver and pancreas are used, this is not necessary the concept map could simply use boxes representing the various tissues and their processes.
The impact of disease could be represented on this concept map by introducing Type 1 diabetes for example. The latter is a consequence of islet cell destruction in the pancreas and therefore the cessation of insulin production. Without insulin cells can not take in glucose and therefore blood glucose levels rise (hyperglycaemia) which results in the acute and long term complications of diabetes. I have included some extra boxes in red as an example of how you might show the impact of the disease.
In this assignment the impact of the particular disease process identified in the given topic will need to be incorporated into your concept map.
How homeostasis is disrupted to cause disease should be clearly identified.
Often students are bombarded with strange terminology when studying body systems and physiological processes. Some students may attempt to rote learn new terms in isolation; however, a more effective way of learning is to understand how the new bits of information relate to each other i.e. a concept map.
The new information will make more sense if linkages are identified and new terms are more easily committed to memory if used in relationship with other terms or concepts.