Recent Question/Assignment

Hi ****, I have put your name above the questions you will be doing and highlighted the questions in green. You are doing part B of question one and also question 4, I have written you a draft for question 4 as an example. Remember, you must speak for roughly 2 and a half minutes in total.
Thanks, ****
You may structure your presentation using the following detailed guide:
1. Introduction to presentation:
a. Introduce the group members and explain what you are going to be talking about in the presentation.
Good Morning,
What is science, what is climate change, and how is it effecting the world we live in.

Today ****, ****, **** and myself will aim to give you a better understanding of climate change. Currently, the climate is changing more rapidly than at any other period throughout recorded history. This is driven by increased emissions of ‘greenhouse gases*’ originating from human activity. In this presentation we will address the ramifications of rapid climate change, and stress the impacts it is having on the ocean. I will now pass over to ****, who will define science and further introduce our topic and why it is relevant to science and society.

**This is your first part
b. Then you need to define science, and provide an introduction to this area of science and research; why it interests you and how it fits into science and society.
2. Background to your field of research:
a. What is the research, and who* is carrying it out, where? *You can use Author-mapper as a tool to gain a snapshot of global research patterns.
b. Is it important locally, nationally or globally? Why?
c. How is it relevant to society? How is the knowledge applied?
d. Who uses this information i.e. -managers, industry, government, medics?
e. Are there any social or ethical issues you can identify?
f. Have any particular technologies supported the development of this field of research?
(Draft copy of what I will say for my part)
3. Example of specific study:
a. Provide an example of recent studies/research on this topic/in this discipline
Our chosen research paper investigates how increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide is effecting the oceans chemical composition and consequently the coral reef systems.
b. Summarise the project/s briefly, including study rationale, methods, findings, conclusions, implications
Using global atmospheric CO2 and temperature data recorded from the Vostok Ice Core, this study compared the carbonate ion concentration and temperatures seen in the ocean today, relative to the data recorded in the past.
Utilising the data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this article has also predicted the expected changes to the health of coral reef systems over the next century.
At present, the global ocean temperatures are higher and the oceans pH and carbonate ion concentrations are lower than at any other point over the past 420,000 years. And, more concerningly, they are predicted to increase.
In the past century the concentration of atmospheric CO2 has increased dramatically, mainly because of human activity such as the burning of fossil fuels. Due to the solubility of CO2 in water, our oceans are absorbing a large percentage of this excess CO2. As CO2 dissolves in sea water, carbonic acid is formed. Carbonic acid is increasing the acidity of the sea water and depleting the concentration of carbonate ions.
How is this affecting the health of coral reef systems?
Coral reef systems rely on carbonate ions to build their calcium carbonate shells, as carbonate ions become less abundant, the density of skeletal structure of the coral reef sytems is decreased. This makes the coral reef systems more fragile and vulnerable to erosion.
The increase in ocean temperatures over the past 50 years has pushed coral reef systems to their thermal. Coral relies on a symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellates, dinoflagellates provide coral with food and energy to survive. This relationship is temperature sensitive. if temperatures exceed summer maxima by 1-2 degrees for an extended period of time, the symbiotic relationship disintegrates which leads to coral bleaching.
This study predicts that the the temperature and acidity of the ocean will continue to increase over the next century. This will cause mass coral bleaching, disease, mortality and ultimately functional collapse of coral reef systems.
**** will now discuss some of the implications associated with a decrease in the functioning of coral reef systems.
-Coral reef systems are the most biologically diverse and economically important ecosystems on the planet.
• Coral reef systems provide vital services to human society through coastal protection, fisheries and tourism. (also biochemical compounds, building materials e.t.c)
• Many low-income coastal countries and developing small island states in coral reef regions heavily rely on tourism. These areas have the lowest capacity to respond to climate change, but will suffer great economic consequences from its effects.
• Coral reefs also contribute considerably to the Australian economy (roughly 1.5 billion dollars per year)
• The total landing of coral reef fisheries is already 64% higher than what can be sustained, dying coral reef systems exacerbates this problem.
• Reef rugosity is important for the productivity of all reef based fisheries, including subsistence, industrial and supply to the aquarium trade.
• Coral reefs provide roughly 25% of the total catch in Asia, and provide food to roughly a billion people
Coastal Protection
• Coral reef systems provide a natural barrier to coastal areas around the world. This prevents damaging waves from eroding coastal land.
c. In which ways does this study contribute to scientific/societal knowledge?
This study contributes to growing body of scientific knowledge on climate change. Although it is not the first study of this kind, it has updated the scientific community and society to the dire state of coral reef systems. Importantly, it has used data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to make predictions on the future health of coral reef systems.
d. In which ways has this information communicated to end users or other relevant groups?
This study was published in Science
e. You can include multimedia/ a short youtube clip if relevant. No longer than one minute please.
**This is your second part
4. Summary and conclusion:
a. Summarise what you have said.
Throughout this presentation, we have defined science, and given an overview of the research field of Climate Change. We have discussed the ramifications of rapid climate change on coral reef systems and outlined the effects it will have on society
b. Provide some concluding remarks.
We have only addressed one area which rapid climate change is affecting. This is just the tip of the iceberg, there is no greater threat to the environment and all living species than that of a rapidly changing environment. ‘Greenhouse Gas’ emissions must be significantly reduced to slow down the devastating effects of rapid climate change.
c. What do you think might be future directions/possibilities for this field of research?
• How climate change in effecting human health
• How climate change is effecting air quality
• How are ecosystems adapting to climate change
• How climate change effects water quality
d. Provide a slide to include any references/sources you may have used in regards to information and/or images.
I can sort out everyone’s references