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Table 1 Cross-sectional study: (Insert the title of the paper you are appraising)
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
1.Were the criteria for inclusion in the sample clearly defined? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
2.Were the study subjects and the setting described in detail? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
3.Was the exposure measured in a valid and reliable way? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
4.Were objective, standard criteria used for measurement of the condition? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
5.Were confounding factors identified? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
6.Were strategies to deal with confounding factors stated? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
7.Were the outcomes measured in a valid and reliable way? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
8.Was appropriate statistical analysis used? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Add additional pages if needed
Reference: (insert the reference here according to APA 6th edition)

Table 2 Case-control study: (Insert the title of the paper you are appraising)
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
1.Did the study address a clearly focused issue? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
2. Did the authors use an appropriate method to answer their question? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
3. Were the cases recruited in an acceptable way? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
4. Were the controls selected in an acceptable way? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
5. Was the exposure accurately measured to minimise bias? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions
Underline your answer
6. Aside from the experimental intervention, were the groups treated equally? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
7. Have the authors taken account of the potential confounding factors in the design and/or in their analysis? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
8. How large was the treatment effect? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
9. How precise was the estimate of the treatment effect? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
10. Do you believe the results? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
11. Can the results be applied to the local population? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
12. Do the results of this study fit with other available evidence? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Add additional pages if needed
Reference: (insert the reference here according to APA 6th edition)

Table 3 Cohort study: (Insert the title of the paper you are appraising)
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
1.Did the study address a clearly focused issue? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
2.Was the cohort recruited in an acceptable way? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
3.Was the exposure accurately measured to minimise bias? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
4.Was the outcome accurately measured to minimise bias? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
5(a)Have the authors identified all important confounding factors? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
5(b)Have they taken account of the confounding factors in the design and/or analysis? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
6(a)Was the follow up of subjects complete enough? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
6(b)Was the follow up of subjects long enough? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
7.What are the results of this study? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
8.How precise are the results? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
9.Do you believe the results? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
10.Can the results be applied to the local population? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
11.Do the results of this study fit with other available evidence? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
12.What are the implications of this study for practice? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Add additional pages if needed
Reference: (insert the reference here according to APA 6th edition)

Add additional pages if needed
Table 3 Randomised controlled trial: (Insert the title of the paper you are appraising)
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
1. Did the trial address a clearly focused issue? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
2. Was the assignment of patients to treatments randomised? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
3. Were all of the patients who entered the trial properly accounted for at its conclusion? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
4.Were patients, health workers and study personnel ‘blind’ to treatment? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
5.Were the groups similar at the start of the trial? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
6.Aside from the experimental intervention, were the groups treated equally? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
7.How large was the treatment effect? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
8.How precise was the estimate of the treatment effect? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
9.Can the results be applied to the local population, or in your context? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
10.Were all clinically important outcomes considered? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution
Critical appraisal questions Underline your answer
11.Are the benefits worth the harms and costs? Yes/No/Unclear
Evidence: justification, compare and contrasting or/and providing solution

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