Question (Total 100 marks)
Answer the following question in 4,000 words.
Examine why illegal money lending exists in society. How should Singapore view and address the problem of illegal money lending?
Your paper should demonstrate evidence of academic research and depth of analysis, and should, minimally, include discussions revolving around:
Examining definitions of crime and deviance: What constitutes ‘illegal money lending’? What laws are in place to address such activities, and are they sufficient? How do these laws compare with those of other countries? Is involvement in illegal money lending to be regarded as crime or deviance? Why are some sources of money lending illegal? Are there any changes in the laws and penalties over the years?
Social norms and values: Who are the stakeholders? Who are the victims and who are the offenders? How does Singapore society view such offenders, victims, the laws and the penalties surrounding this issue? To what extent do the laws reflect societal norms and values?
An analysis of the role of the media and appraisal of the statistics: How has the media depicted illegal moneylenders over the years? Are there any stereotypes created, affirmed, or debunked? What are the numbers (or estimates) on the offenders involved? How do we compare with other countries? Does the dark figure of crime apply to this phenomenon and why?
Consideration and appraisal of theories (this section should form the bulk of your paper): Consider all the theories covered in the course: which theory or theories do you think explains/explain why illegal money lending exists in our societies, or why people become illegal moneylenders? Do you think those who borrow from illegal moneylenders should also be punished? Also consider theories of punishment and crime prevention in your report.
? Anomie / Strain = Durkheim = Social Upheaval / Stress;
? Social Disorganization
? Differential Association = “Crime is Learned”;
? Sub-Cultural = Marginalized Groups;
? Control = Good Socialization ? Low / No Crime;
? (Social Bond = Poor Child-Rearing ? Low Self-Control ? Crime);
? Drift = Matza = Conforming -- Non-Conforming
? Modern Relevance of Theories
Recommendations: Appraise and critique the current measures with regard to the crimes or issues you have identified. Are they sufficient? Do they reflect societal norms and values? You are also free to suggest any alternative or complementary measures.
The ECA, which takes the form of the research paper you have to write, allows you to develop research and analytical skills. While your paper should cover the above pointers, you should not write in a step-by-step manner in accordance with the suggested pointers raised. Rather, your paper should take the form of a coherent, continuous essay (you may use headings).
Marks Allocation (general guide to the weight of each criterion):
Application and appraisal of theories in discussion of case (40 marks)
Demonstration of key skills in identifying issues; synthesising and analysing case material; and appraising and recommending measures (40 marks)
Quality of research, and adequate and accurate citations/references (15 marks) (NB: Do not cite Wikipedia or generic online sources.)
Language and adherence to the word limit (5 marks)
Remember to include in-text citations and a reference list in the APA style (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.) (2010). Available at http://www.apastyle.org.