Laboratory Report 4
Module: Biomechanics of Sport & Exercise
This is a laboratory manual is designed to help you complete the requirements of Laboratory Report 4. This manual is to be used in conjunction with the Student Guide, which sets out the overall Assessments description, formatting requirements and general marking criteria.
Structure of your Laboratory Report
In order to complete your Individual Assessment (30%), you are required to write 6 individual scientific laboratory reports. Each report must contain;
Appendix (if applicable)
References (if applicable)
Aim (1 Mark)
In this section you should outline the aims of the practical session. You need to answer the question, what am I trying to find out?
Introduction (2 Marks)
This is a short section that helps the reader to understand some of the background behind what you are trying to do. This is where you simply introduce any theories (e.g. Newton’s Laws), equations and/or anything you feel is related to the aim. This section only needs you to describe rather discussing your findings (that comes later!).
Method (2 Marks)
This section should be the easiest of all the sections you are required to do! In this section simply describe what you did. Ask yourself, what equipment did I use? In what order did I do everything? How did I carry out the whole practical session?
Results (2 Marks)
It should be easy for you to understand what needs to go into this section. It needs to have all of the data you have collected. The data should be presented in table when possible rather than in written text. This makes it easier for someone who is reading your results to understand. DO NOT make this section complicated!
Discussion (2 Marks)
This is the section that allows you to express what you know. If you remember back to your introduction, this section should follow and include all of the principles, theories and equations you introduced at the start. However, the difference is that in this section you need to build upon your description from your introduction (DO NOT REPEAT IT). This section takes time to master, so please do not get frustrated if you find it difficult at the start! Instead, think about why have your results happened? What do you know about any of the principles, theories or equations that could help you explain the reasons why something has happened?
This is a section that MUST be part of your report if at any time you have used the work of others (e.g. internet, books, articles, magazines). It is against the law to use other peoples work and pretend that it is your own. It is simply theft! To ensure that you do not have any serious accusations leveled against you please reference other authors’ work correctly (refer to Student Guide or consult your lecturer for help). As part of your Sport and Exercise Science Course you will develop the knowledge and appreciate the importance for referencing.
This is an important part of writing any scientific laboratory report. The appendix is a section where you can place any additional material that helps you describe, explain or discuss any of the topics you will cover in this module. For instance, sometimes it is easier to attach equations to the appendix and refer to the appendix in your writing rather than placing the equations in the written text itself.
Participation in the practical(s) (1 Mark)
Total Marks Awarded = 10 marks
Maximum Length of the report is 3 A4 size pages (excluding results, references and appendices)
Laboratory Report 4
Kinetic and Gravitational Potential Energy of Tennis Serve.
The aim of scientific laboratory report 4 is to describe and explain the changes in Kinetic and Gravitational Potential energy of a tennis ball during a tennis serve. In order to do this, students must cover the objectives detailed below.
The introduction needs to cover the terminology highlighted in the primary and secondary objectives of each scientific paper report. Please refer to the below objectives;
Explain the relationship between mechanical work and energy.
Define Mechanical Work
Define energy, kinetic energy & gravitational potential energy
Methodology (this method will not be sufficient in your own Laboratory Report)
Working in groups of no more than three (3) people, one (1) member of the group will act as the participant and the other two (2) will record the data. The task is to complete an upward throw of a tennis ball during a mock tennis serve. (Please note that due to time constraints or large group numbers, the lecturer may choose to provide theoretical data to replace practical data).
Below are some tips!
Remember to start you method with the participant.
Only concentrate on the participant and what he/she did (never talk about the other members of the group)
Focus on everything the group did to achieve the data collection
Never list or use bullet points in your method.
Data Collection Sheet
Overall, students should apply their knowledge of the work – energy relationship to discuss any differences seen across the tennis serve. For instance, student could focus on discussing the changes in both types of energy during the tennis serve, providing reasons for the changes. Students are encouraged to focus only on the tennis ball during this assignment and not the body of the tennis player.